" Amos and Hosea," p. 222).
The older records utilized by the Deuteronomic and later compilers indicate some common tradition which has found expression in these varying forms. Different religious standpoints are represented in the biblical writings, and it is now important to observe that the prophecies of Hosea unmistakably show another attitude to the Israelite priesthood.
So it was in old Israel: the Sabbath was one of the stated religious feasts, like the new moon and the three great .agricultural sacrificial celebrations (Hosea ii.
Hosea even takes it for granted that in captivity the Sabbath will be suspended, like all the other feasts, because in his day a feast implied a sanctuary.
Harper, Amos and Hosea (Internat.
Even in the days of Hosea the rivalry between Yahweh and the old Canaanite Baal still continued.
The rhabdomancy denounced by Hosea (iv.
In the younger contemporary prophet of Ephraim, Hosea, the stress is laid on the relation of love (hesed) between Yahweh, the divine husband, and Israel, the faithless spouse.
In Isaiah both aspects - divine universal sovereignty and justice, taught by Amos, and divine loving-kindness to Israel and God's claims on His people's allegiance, taught by Hosea - are fully expressed.
Harper,, Amos and Hosea, p. xli.
It is true that the situation in Israel or Samaria continues obscure, but a careful study of literary productions, evidently not earlier than the 7th century B.C., reveals a particular loftiness of conception and a tendency which finds its parallels in Hosea and approximates the peculiar characteristics of the Deuteronomic school of thought.
But by the time of Hosea (ii.
A pilgrimage feast must be fixed in date to ensure the simultaneous presence of the pilgrims. There are, besides, seeming references to the feast in the early prophets, as Hosea xii.
RICHARD HILDRETH (1807-1865), American journalist and author, was born at Deerfield, Massachusetts, on the 28th of June 1807, the son of Hosea Hildreth (1782-1835), a teacher of mathematics and later a Congregational minister.
I is (like those of the Psalms) the work of one or more of the Sopherim (or students and editors of Scripture) in post-exilic times, apparently the same writer (or company of writers) who prefixed the headings of Hosea and Micah, and perhaps of some of the other books.
The predictions of these chapters have no affinity either with the prophecy of Amos, Hosea and Isaiah, or with that of Jeremiah.
Were ascribed to a contemporary of Amos and Hosea, about the middle of the 8th century B.C., because Ephraim is mentioned as well as Judah, and Assyria along with Egypt (x.
But neither Elijah nor Elisha raised a voice against the cult; then, as later, in the time of Amos, it was nominally Yahweh-worship, and Hosea is the first to regard it as the fundamental cause of Israel's misery.
Jerome's mind was evidently full of anxiety about his translation of the Old Testament, for we find him in his letters recording the conversations he had with learned men about disputed readings and doubtful renderings; the blind Didymus of Alexandria, whom he heard interpreting Hosea, appears to have been most useful.
28; and the allusion in Hosea xii.
But whether this is the Gilgal spoken of by Amos and Hosea in connexion with Bethel is by no means certain [see (3) below].
The text of Hosea may be in a much worse condition, but a keen scrutiny discloses many an uncertainty, not to say impossibility, in the traditional form of Amos.
2 -5) and the author of Kings, seem to mark out the Molech or Baal as a false god, distinct from Yahweh, is precisely parallel to the way in which Hosea speaks of the golden calves or Baalim.
So fundamental a change as lies between Hosea and the Priestly Code was only possible in the general dissolution of the old life of Israel produced by the Assyrians and by the prophets; and indeed the new order did not take shape as a system till the exile had made a great change in old institutions.
Harper, Amos and Hosea, p. li.
Beginning with Amos and Hosea, they form a series which was not completed till more than three centuries had passed away.
The two earliest of the Minor Prophets, Amos and Hosea, prophesied in the northern kingdom, at about 760 and 740 B.C. respectively; both foresaw the approaching ruin of northern Israel at the hands of the Assyrians, which took place in fact when Sargon took Samaria in 722 B.C.; and both did their best to stir their people to better things.
11; Hosea xii.
The full development of this view seems to lie between the time of Elijah and that of Amos and Hosea - under the dynasty of Jehu, when prophecy, as represented by Elisha and Jonah, stood in the fullest harmony with the patriotic efforts of the age.
From this time, moreover, the prophets appear as authors; and their books, preserved in the Old Testament, form the subject of special articles (Amos, Hosea, &c.).
That this is so appears most clearly in the fact that with Amos the prophecy of restoration appears only in a few verses at the end of his book, and in the still more instructive fact that neither he nor Hosea attempts to explain how the restoration which they accept as a postulate of faith is to be historically realized.
To Hosea, at least in his later prophecies, the fate of Judah does not appear separable from that of the northern realm - when Israel and Ephraim fall by their iniquity Judah must fall with them (Hos.
In the older literature of the Hebrews, the nearest approach to the thought of Amos and Hosea is not Gen.
2 Hosea ii.
We have already seen how Amos and Hosea put this (supra, p. zoii), and it does not appear that they were introducing a conception of prophecy formally novel - the new thing was their conception of Yahweh's purpose.
II) foretold' the redintegration of the Davidic kingdom, and Hosea (iii.
Instead of the epistle, sundry passages from Hosea, Habakkuk, Exodus and the Psalms are read.
Harper, Amos and Hosea (Internat.
6-8) has found many adherents, but an earlier period, about 750 B.C. (time of Amos and Hosea), is often held to satisfy the main conditions; the former, however, is probably nearer the mark.
On Amos and Hosea, pp. 58-64 (on the position of the Decalogue in early pre-prophetic religion of Israel); C. A.
Harper (Amos and Hosea, 1905, p. liv.) observes: "Every year since the work of W.
He developed four well-defined characters in the process - a country farmer, Ezekiel Biglow, and his son Hosea; the Rev. Homer Wilbur, a shrewd old-fashioned country minister; and Birdofredum Sawin, a Northern renegade who enters the army, together with one or two subordinate characters; and his stinging satire and sly humour are so set forth in the vernacular of New England as to give at once a historic dignity to this form of speech.
For other allusions to this period see Hosea, Isaiah.
(1796); Hosea, translated ...
HOSEA BALLOU (1771-1852), American Universalist clergyman, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, on the 30th of April 1771.
C. Adams, Hosea Ballou and the Gospel Renaissance (Boston, 1904).
His grand-nephew, Hosea Ballou (1796-1861), born in Halifax, Vermont, on the 18th of October 1796, preached _to Universalists in Stafford, Connecticut (1815-1821); and in Massachusetts, in Roxbury (1821-1838) and in Medford (1838-1853); and in 1853 was elected first president of Tufts College at Medford, serving in that office until shortly before his death, which took place at Somerville, Massachusetts, on the 27th of May 1861.
He was associated with the elder Hosea Ballou in editing The Universalist Quarterly Review; edited an edition of Sismondi's History of the Crusades (1833); and wrote the Ancient History of Universalism, down to A.D.
MATURIN MURRAY BALLOU (1820-1895), son of the first Hosea, was a pioneer in American illustrated journalism, edited Gleason's Pictorial and Ballou's Monthly and many collections of quotations, and in 1872 became editor-in-chief of the Boston Daily Globe, of which he was one of the founders.
6), as the executor of the divine judgments, (Hosea vi.
In the same year appeared Unitarian books by John Sherman (1772-1828) and Hosea Ballou (1771-1852), and another in 1810 by Noah Worcester (1758-1837).
Stock proverbial sayings such as "Out of Galilee cometh no prophet" (though Deborah, Jonah, Elisha, and probably Hosea, were Galileans) were apparently common.
In Amos, Hosea and Isaiah there are no traces of D's ideas, whereas in Jeremiah and Ezekiel their influence is everywhere manifest.
The situation is illustrated in the writings of Hosea (q.v.).