Districts, as well as the greater part of the Sierra Alta, are destitute of large trees; but the coast-lands on both sides towards Tabasco and British Honduras enjoy a sufficient rainfall to support forests containing the mahogany tree, several valuable cabinet woods, vanilla, logwood and other dye-woods.
There is a large trade with Honduras also.
Carolina and Honduras rices were practically the only varieties until after 1896.
The " Ule " rubber of Central America and British Honduras originates from Castilloa elastica.
It is found also in Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Cuba and Hayti, and in Panama with another species of Castilloa, and on the W.
In British Honduras an alkaline decoction prepared from the Moon plant (Calonictyon speciosum) is used for the same purpose.
Although its name is sometimes applied to the whole eastern seaboard of Nicaragua - and even to Mosquitia in Honduras, i.e.
BELIZE, or Balize, the capital and principal seaport of British Honduras, on the Caribbean Sea, in 17° 29' N.
Its houses are generally built of wood, with high roofs and wide verandahs shaded by cocoanut or cabbage palms. The principal buildings are the court house, in the centre of the town, government house, at the southern end, Fort George, towards the north, the British bank of Honduras, the hospital, the Roman Catholic convent, and the Wesleyan church, which is the largest and handsomest of all.
It may be possible either that these tribes are the autochthonous inhabitants who dwelt in Guatemala, Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua before the immigration of the prehistoric Maya peoples; or else that they invaded this region after it had been deserted by a prehistoric oriental branch of the Maya family.
The Chorotega race had its centre in Nicaragua (Pacific coast) and at one time extended thence as far as Guanacaste (Costa Rica); at another time it extended as far as Honduras (actual department of Choluteca) and into eastern Salvador as far as the state of Chiapas in Mexico, where the Chorotega penetrated amongst the Mixe.
In comparing these ruins in Yucatan, Chiapas, Guatemala and Honduras, it is evident that, though they are the work of two or more nations highly distinct in language, yet these nations had a common system of pictorial or written characters.
Approximately its south border ran from a point slightly east of Tehuantepec to the bay of Honduras, and its north limit was that of the modern states of Michoacan and Guanajuato, then cutting across San Luis Potosi to a point just above Tampico.
GUATEMALA (sometimes incorrectly written Guatimala), a name now restricted to the republic of Guatemala and to its chief city, but formerly given to a captaincy-general of Spanish America, which included the fifteen provinces of Chiapas, Suchitepeques, Escuintla, Sonsonate, San Salvador, Vera Paz and Peten, Chiquimula, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Totonicapam, Quezaltenango, Sololá, Chimaltenango and Sacatepeques, - or, in other words, the whole of Central America (except Panama) and part of Mexico.
By British Honduras, E.
By the Gulf of Honduras, and the republic of Honduras, S.E.
A range called the Sierra de Chama, which, however, changes its name frequently from place to place, strikes eastward towards British Honduras, and is connected by low hills with the Cockscomb Mountains; another similar range, the Sierra de Santa Cruz, continues east to Cape Cocoli between the Polochic and the Sarstoon; and a third, the Sierra de las Minas or, in its eastern portion, Sierra del Mico, stretches between the Polochic and the Motagua.
Between Honduras and Guatemala the frontier is formed by the Sierra de Merendon.
In 1845 an attempt to restore the federal union failed; in 1851 Carrera defeated the Federalist forces of Honduras and Salvador at La Arada near Chiquimula, and was recognized as the pacificator of the republic. In 1851 a new constitution was promulgated, and Carrera was appointed president till 1856, a dignity which was in 18J4 bestowed upon him for life.
Honduras now joined with Salvador, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica with Guatemala.
The contest was finally settled in favour of Carrera, who besieged and occupied San Salvador and made himself dominant also in Honduras and Nicaragua.
Counting on the support of Honduras and Salvador, he proclaimed himself, in February 1885, the supreme military chief of Central America, and claimed the command of all the forces within the five states.
A well-armed force, which included a body of adventurers from San Francisco (U.S.A.) was organized by General Barillas, the ex-president, and invaded Guatemala in March 1906 from Mexico, British Honduras and Salvador.
Ocos was captured by his lieutenant, General Castillo, and the revolution speedily became a war, in which Honduras, Costa Rica and Salvador were openly involved against Guatemala, while Nicaragua was hostile.
The third Pan-American Conference was held in the months of July and August 1906, and was attended by the United States, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Salvador and Uruguay.
Honduras, April 26, 1909.
Honduras - Spain, May 13, 1905.
Farther to the south, on the borders of Guatemala and British Honduras, there exists a perfectly distinct species, M.
Africa), Zambezia, Jamaica, British Guiana, British Honduras, Alaska.
The Spanish wood has a darker colour and richer figure than the Honduras, and is therefore preferred for ornamental j oinery work.
The colour of mahogany is reddish brown, and in the Cuban wood the pores are often filled with a white chalky substance which is usually absent in the Honduras variety; the latter, however, may be obtained in larger sizes, and is straighter in the grain and easier to work.
Spanish mahogany weighs about 56 lb to the cubic ft., and the Honduras variety about 36 lb.
It is connected by lines of steamers with Miami and Port Tampa, with Galveston, Texas, with Mobile, Alabama, with Philadelphia and New York City, and with West Indian ports, and by regular schooner lines with New York City, the Bahamas, British Honduras, &c. There is now an extension of the Florida East Coast railway from Miami to Key West (1 55 m.).
By Honduras, E.
The frontier which separates the republic from Honduras extends across the continent from east-north-east to west-south-west.
The Spaniards overran the country with great rapidity, both from this centre northwards, and southwards from the Honduras coast.
One outstanding incident was the filibustering expedition of William Walker, who was at first invited by the Liberals of Leon to assist them against the Conservatives of Granada, and who, after seizing the supreme power in 1856, was expelled by the combined forces of the neighbouring states, and on venturing to return was shot at Trujillo in Honduras on the 12th of September 1860.
He was succeeded in 1883 by Dr Cardenas, during whose presidency the attempt of General Barrios to unite the five Central American states was a cause of war between Guatemala and Honduras on one side, and Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica on the other.
While Dr Sacasa was president of Honduras, Salvador and Guatemala signed a treaty, under which the United States of Central America were to be formed.
In 1907 he carried to a successful issue the war which broke out in that year between Nicaragua and Honduras (q.v.).
BAY ISLANDS (IsLAS DE LA Bahia), a small archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Honduras, of which country it forms an administrative district.
AMAPALA, the only port on the Pacific coast of Honduras, on the northern shore of Tigre island, in the Bay of Fonseca (q.v.); in 13° 3' N., and 87° 9' W.
It is the natural outlet for the commerce of some of the richest parts of Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador; and during the 19th century it exported large quantities of gold, silver and other ores, although its progress was retarded by the delay in constructing a transcontinental railway from Puerto Cortes.
The varieties of sarsaparilla met with in commerce are the following: Jamaica, Lima, Honduras, Guatemala, Guayaquil and Mexican.
On the Continent, especially in Italy, the varieties having a white starchy bark, like those of Honduras and Guatemala, are preferred.
"Jamaica" sarsaparilla derives its name from the fact that Jamaica was at one time the emporium for sarsaparilla, which was brought thither from Honduras, New Spain and Peru.
In Honduras sarsaparilla the roots are less wrinkled, and the bark is whiter and more starchy, than in the Jamaica kind.
Small parts of British Honduras and Guatemala are also included in it.
Belize is connected by telegraph and telephone with the other chief towns of British Honduras, but there is no railway, and communication even by road is defective.
The history of Belize is inextricably bound up with that of the rest of British Honduras (q.
Between September 1493 and the time of his last voyage (May 1502 to November 1504), Columbus explored the West Indies, reached the mainland of South America at the mouth of the Orinoco and sailed along the coast of Central America from Cape Honduras to Nombre de Dios (near Colon).
Between Quemada and Copan, in Honduras, is an unbroken series of mural structures.
From Honduras to Panama the urn burials, the pottery, the rude carved images and, above all, the grotesque jewellery, absorb the archaeologist's attention.
The former is found in Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama; the latter in Guatemala, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
In 1897 the state joined the Greater Republic of Central America, established in 1895 by Honduras, Nicaragua and Salvador, but dissolved in 1898.
Mejico, or Mexico,) officially styled Estados Unidos Mexicanos and Republica Mexicana, a federal republic of North America extending from the United States of America southward to Guatemala and British Honduras, and lying between the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea on the east.
Between these rivers the boundary line is determined by the peaks of Tacana, Buenavista and Ixbul, and from the Usumacinta eastward it follows two parallels of latitude, one on the point of departure from that river, and the other, the longer, on that of 1 7° 49' to the British Honduras frontier.
The boundary with British Honduras was determined by a treaty of 1893 and is formed in great part by the Hondo river down to the head of Chetumal Bay, and thence through that bay to the Boca Bacalar Chicathe channel separating Yucatan from Ambergris Cay.
The archaeological and linguistic evidence proves also that a great part of Salvador and Honduras was once occupied by peoples of the Maya race - Pokomam, Chorti and perhaps other unknown tribes.
It is noteworthy that archaeological objects of the type characteristic of northern Honduras (Ulloa Valley) have been found on the Pacific coast of Salvador.
In the nearly unexplored central part of Nicaragua Dr Lehmann found fragments of painted polychrome clay pottery similar to objects known from the Ulloa Valley (Honduras) amongst other ceramic pieces which seem to have been left by the ancestors of the Sumo Indians, now extinct in that territory.
The Sumo-Misquito Indians occupied the Atlantic coast and the interior of Nicaragua and Honduras, where they still live in small tribes; a dialect of the hitherto unknown Sumo languages.