In order to obtain the phenol from this distillate, it is treated with caustic soda, which dissolves the phenol and its homologues tegether with a certain quantity of naphthalene and other hydrocarbons.
For example: nitric acid and sulphuric acid readily react with benzene and its homologues with the production of nitro derivatives and sulphonic acids, while in the aliphatic series these acids exert no substituting action (in the case of the olefines, the latter acid forms an addition product); another distinction is that the benzene complex is more stable towards oxidizing agents.
Substitution of the Benzene Ring.-As a general rule, homologues and mono-derivatives of benzene react more readily with substituting agents than the parent hydrocarbon; for example, phenol is converted into tribromphenol by the action of bromine water, and into the nitrophenols by dilute nitric acid; similar activity characterizes aniline.
The homologues of acetylene condense more readily; thus allylene, CH: C CH 3, and crotonylene, CH 3.0: C CH 3, yield trimethyland hexamethyl-benzene under the influence of sulphuric acid.
Benzene and its homologues, carboxylic acids, and nitro compounds are much more stable towards oxidizing agents than.
The head is rather large, and is furnished at first with five simple eyes of nearly equal size; but as it increases in size the homologues of the facetted eyes of the imago become larger, whereas those equivalent to the ocelli remain small.
When methyl iodide is used, nitromethane is the sole product, but the higher homologues give more or less of the isomeric nitrous esters.
In 1877, with Crafts, he made the first publication of the fruitful and widely used method for synthesizing benzene homologues now generally known as the "Friedel and Crafts reaction."
Formic acid yields acridine, and the higher homologues give derivatives substituted at the meso carbon atom, N N +[[Hcooh-C 6 H 5 /Inc6h5->C6h4 C6h4 Cho Ch N N +Ch 3 000h->C 6 H 5 /IC 6 H 5 --C 6 H 4 < >C6h4 Coch 3 C]](CH3) Acridine may also 1:e obtained by passing the vapour of phenylortho-toluidine through a red-hot tube (C. Graebe, Ber., 1884, 17, p. 1 37 0); by condensing diphenylamine with chloroform, in presence of aluminium chloride (0.
Acridine and its homologues are very stable compounds of feebly basic character.
They are of importance, since the higher homologues are identical in many cases with the ptomaines produced by the putrefactive action of some bacteria on albumen and other related substances.
Methane and its homologues give origin to the " paraffin " or " fatty series " of the general formula C,H 2, ,+ 1 000H, ethylene gives origin to the acrylic acid series, C n H 27, - 1 000H, and so on.
The poison is secreted in modified upper labial glands, or in a pair of large glands which are the homologues of the parotid salivary glands of other animals.
NAPHTHYLAMINES, or Aminonaphthalenes, C10H7NH2, the naphthalene homologues of aniline, in contrast to which they may be prepared by heating the naphthols with ammoniazinc chloride.
The male forms, which are very small and the homologues of the microgametes developed in the blood, appear to die off soon.
The calcium salt, when heated with the calcium salts of higher homologues, gives aldehydes.
They are the homologues of the scrotum in the male.
Hantzsch has shown that aldehydes condense with aceto-acetic ester and ammonia to produce the homologues of pyridine, thus: R R [[Rooc Ch 2 Cho Ch 2 Coor Rooc C - Ch - C Coor]] + + 1 = Ii II +3H20.
With urea it gives " /CH NN quinazolone I, and with mandelic nitrile and its H /C0 homologues it forms oxazole derivatives (S.
A 2.6 naphthoquinone results on oxidizing 2.6 dihydroxynaphthalene with lead Or Hydroxynaphthalenes, C 1 oH 7 OH, the naphthalene homologues of the phenols.
The variability of structures which are repeated in the body of the same individual (serial homologues) has been studied by Pearson and his pupils with important results.
The simplest of such repeated elements are the cells of the tissues, more complex are cell-aggregates, from hairs, scales, teeth and the like, up to limbs or metameres in animals, or the .00 '00 leaves and their homologues in plants.
The correlation between undifferentiated sets of serial homologues, produced by a single individual, is the measure of what Pearson has called homotyposis.
Considerable interest is attached to the remarkable series of hydrocarbons obtained by Gomberg (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3150, et seq.) by acting on triphenylmethane chloride (from triphenylmethane carbinol and phosphorus pentachloride, or from carbon tetrachloride and benzene in the presence of aluminium chloride) and its homologues with zinc, silver or mercury.
Homologues of cocaine - ethylbenzoylecgonine, &c. - have been prepared; they closely resemble natural cocaine.
The oxidation of the glycols led him to homologues of lactic acid, and a controversy about the constitution of the latter with H.
Pechmann, Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1624), thus corresponding to the formulae The homologues of pyridine may be synthesized in various ways.
Of the other methods for preparing pyridine homologues mention may be made of the discovery by A.
The subjoined table shows the chief homologues of pyridine: Pyridine carboxylic acids are usually prepared by oxidizing the homologues of the base; they also result as decomposition products of various alkaloids.
It also occurs with pyridine and its homologues in bone-oil.
They are both crystalline solids, the former melting when anhydrous at 199-200°, and the latter at 52° C. ' Of the homologues of quinoline, the most important are quinaldine, lepidine, -y-phenylquinoline, and flavoline.
The reaction is a perfectly general one, for the aniline may be replaced by other aromatic amines and the aldehyde by other aldehydes, and so a large number of quinoline homologues may be prepared in this way.
The oxy derivatives of the quinoline homologues are best obtained from the aniline derivatives of (3-ketonic acids.
It is spheroidal, with the mouth and anus at opposite poles; there are five ambulacra, and the ambulacral plates are large, simple and alternating, each being pierced by two podial pores which lie in a small oval depression; the ambulacrals next the mouth form a closed ring of ten plates; the interambulacrals lie in single columns between the ambulacra, and are separated from the mouth-area by the proximal ambulacrals just mentioned, and sometimes by the second set of ambulacrals also; the ambulacra end in the five oculars or terminals, which meet in a ring around the anal area and have no podial pores, but one of them serves as a madreporite; within this ring is a star-shaped area filled with minute irregular plates, none of which can safely be selected as the homologues of the so-called basals or genitals of later forms; within the ring of ambulacrals around the mouth are five somewhat pointed plates, which Jaekel regards as teeth, but which can scarcely be homologous with the interradially placed teeth of later echinoids, since they are radial in position; small spines are present, especially around the podial pores.
It may be obtained synthetically by Fittig and Tollens's method (above); by Friedel and Craft's process, devised in 1877, of acting with aluminium chloride on a mixture of benzene and methyl chloride; this reaction leads to the production of higher homologues which may, however, break down under the continued action of the aluminium chloride; or by heating the toluene carboxylic acids obtained by oxidizing the higher homologues of benzene.
In 1855 Adolph Wurtz had shown that when sodium acted upon alkyl iodides, the alkyl residues combined to form more complex hydrocarbons; Fittig developed this method by showing that a mixture of an aromatic and alkyl haloid, under similar treatment, yielded homologues of benzene.
The thiophen ketones may be prepared by the interaction of thiophen and its homologues with acid chlorides in the presence of anhydrous aluminium chloride.
The thiophen homologues are best prepared by heating the 1.4 diketones with phosphorus pentasulphide, the diketones reacting in the enolic form: Thiotenol, or oxymethyl thiophene, is prepared by heating laevulinic acid with phosphorus pentasulphide (W.