De Hollander); whereas others have maintained, with greater show of probability, that the Malays were in possession of an ancient alphabet, and that it was the same as the Rechang (Marsden, Friederich), as the Kawi (Van der Tuuk), or most like the Lampong (Kern) - all of which alphabets, with the Battak, Bugi and Macassar, are ultimately traceable to the ancient Cambojan characters.
This he now endeavoured to embody in Der fliegende Hollander, for which he designed a libretto quite independent of any other treatment of the legend.
The step from Rienzi to Der fliegende Hollander is without parallel in the history of music, and would be inexplicable if Rienzi contained nothing good and if Der fliegende Hollander did not contain many reminiscences of the decline of Italian opera; but it is noticeable that in this case the lapses into vulgar music have a distinct dramatic value.
Moreover, the work was intended to be in one act, and is now so performed at Bayreuth; and, although it is very long for a one-act opera, this is certainly the only form which does justice to Wagner's conception.1 Spohr's appreciation of Der fliegende Hollander is a remarkable point in musical history; and his criticism that Wagner's style (in Tannhauser) " lacked rounded periods " shows the best effect of that style on a well-disposed contemporary mind.
When we listen to the free declamation of the singers at the outset of Der fliegende Hollander - a declamation which is accompanied by 1 The subsequent division into three acts, as given in all the published editions, has been effected in the crudest way by inserting a full close in the orchestral interludes at the changes of scene, and then beginning the next scene by taking up the interludes again.
With all its defects, Der fliegende Hollander is the most masterly and the least unequal of Wagner's early works.
The weakest passages in Der fliegende Hollander are not so helpless as the original recitatives of Venus in the first act; or Tannhauser's song, which was too far involved in the whole scheme to be ousted by the mature " New Venusberg music " with which Wagner fifteen years later got rid both of the end of the overture and what he called his " Palais-Royal " Venus.
The crowning complication in the effect of Der fliegende Hollander, Tannhauser and Lohengrin on the musical thought of the 10th century was that the unprecedented fusion of their musical with their dramatic contents revealed some of the meaning of serious music to ears that had been deaf to the classics.
Wagner's choice of subjects had from the outset shown an imagination far above that of any earlier librettist; yet he had begun with stories which could attract ordinary minds, as he dismally realized when the libretto of Der fliegende Hollander so pleased the Parisian wire-pullers that it was promptly set to music by one of their friends.
The disturbing life already appears in Der fliegende Hollander, at the point where Senta's father enters with the Dutchman, and Senta (who is already in an advanced state of Schwarmerei over the legend of the Flying Dutchman) stands rooted to the spot, comparing the living Dutchman with his portrait which hangs over the door.
Der fliegende Hollander: romantische Oper; I act, afterwards cut into 3 (1841).
In 1884 a concession to a number of Hollander and German capitalists of all rights to make railways led to the formation of the Netherlands Railway Company.
Leyds, a Hollander born in Java in 1859, went out to the Transvaal in 1884 as attorney-general and was, in 1887, made government commissioner for the Netherlands (S.
These artists, at first educated in one of the native schools, obtained from a Hollander in Nagasaki some training in the methods and principles of European painting, and left a few oil paintings in which the laws of light and shade and perspective were correctly observed.
Hollander, The Cincinnati Southern Railway; A Study in Municipal Activity (Baltimore, 1894), one of the Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science; and The Founding of the Cincinnati Southern Railway, with an Autobiographical Sketch by E.
Briggs had himself been engaged in filling up the gap, and in a lettex to John Pell, written after the publication of Vlacq's work, and dated October 25, 1628, he says: " My desire was to have those chiliades that are wantinge betwixt 20 and 90 calculated and printed, and I had done them all almost by my selfe, and by some frendes whom my rules had sufficiently informed, and by agreement the busines was conveniently parted 'amongst us; but I am eased of that charge and care by one Adrian Vlacque, an Hollander, who hathe done all the whole hundred chiliades and printed them in Latin, Dutche and Frenche, moo bookes in these 3 languages, and hathe sould them almost all.
With the conclusion of the peace of Munster and the death of the veteran stadholder the struggle for predominance in the Union between the Orangefederalist and the Hollander States-rights parties was certain to be renewed.
In 1889 Dr. Leyds, a young Hollander, was appointed state secretary, and the system of state monopolies around which so much corruption grew up was soon in full course of development.
In 1893 Kruger had to face a third presidential election, and on this occasion the opposition he had raised among the burgers, largely by the favouritism he displayed to the Hollander party, was so strong that it was fully anticipated that his more liberal opponent, General Joubert, would be elected.
Among the works produced for the first time or rehearsed with a view to the furtherance of musical art were Wagner's Tannhduser, Der fliegende Hollander, Das Liebesmahl der Apostel, and Eine Faust Overture, Berlioz's Benvenuto Cellini, the Symphonie Fantastique, Harold en Italie, Romeo et Juliette, La Damnation de Faust, and L'Enfance du Christ - the last two conducted by the composer - Schumann's Genoveva, Paradise and the the music to Manfred and to Faust, Weber's Euryanthe, Schubert's Alfonso and Estrella, Raff's Kanig Alfred, Cornelius's Der Barbier von Baghdad and many more.
Hollander, 1899 Letters to J.
Hollander, 1895; Letters to T.
Cronthal, Die Stadt Wiirzburg im Bauernkriege (Wiirzburg, 1887); Heffner, Wiirzburg and seine Umgebungen (Wiirzburg, 1871); Beckmann, Fiihrer durch Wiirzburg (1906); and Hollander and Hessler, Malerisches aus Alt-Wiirzburg (Wiirzburg, 1898).
The endeavour to bring about a customs union which would embrace the Transvaal was also little to the taste of President Kruger's Hollander advisers, interested as they were in the schemes of the Netherlands Railway Company, who owned the railways of the Transvaal.
Hollander, Guide to the City of Baltimore (Baltimore, 1893); T.
So, we are told, the New Hollander goes naked with impunity, while the European shivers in his clothes.
It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.