About 80% of holdings (amounting to about 6o% of the cultivated area) are cultivated by the proprietor; of the rest approximately 13% are let on lease and 7% are worked on the system known as mtayage (q.v.).
Of uncultivable area covered by lakes, rivers, towns, &c. Only the roughest estimate is possible as to the sizes of holdings, but in general terms it may be said that about 3 million persons are proprietors of holdings under 25 acres in extent amounting to between 15 and 20% of the cultivated area, the rest being owned by some 750,000 proprietors, of whom 150,000 possess half the area in holdings averaging 400 acres in extent.
Henceforward he who inherits a barony must pay r¦o, he who inherits a knight's fee too shillings or less, and for smaller holdings less "according to the ancient custom of fiefs."
Holdings hands like an old world family; we were committing our lives together like marriage vows.
A more progressive form of pastoral industry is that of the tanche (enclosed holdings), in which the owner is both agriculturist and cattle raiser.
The object of settlers, however, in a great many, perhaps in the majority of instances, is to dispose of their holdings as soon as possible after the requirements of the law have been complied with, and to avoid permanent settlement.
There was distrust in the minds of the depositors, especially those whose holdings were small, and most of the banks were, at a very early period, subjected to the strain of repaying a large proportion of their deposits as they fell due.
The whole land is covered with feudal holdings, masters of the levy, police, &c. There is a regular postal system.
On some small holdings, however, it exists with contracts lasting from two to six years.
It contains the ruined capital of the ancient Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, and on the overthrow of that state by the Mahommedans, in f 564, the tract now forming the district of Bellary was split up into a number of military holdings, held by chiefs called poligars.
The later tendency was towards the absorption of smaller holdings into large estates.
Sheep-raising, involving larger holdings, less supervision and less labour, was preferred by the capitalist land-holder to the cultivation of the wheat, spelt, vines or olives which were the chief crops of the country.
They were bound to the soil and occupied holdings of scattered strips (amounting usually to a virgate or 30 acres) in return for a payment partly in labour and partly in kind.
Below the villeins in the social scale came the cottiers possessing smaller holdings, sometimes only a garden, and no oxen.
Fitzherbert, in deploring the gradual discontinuance of the practice of marling land, had alluded to the grievance familiar in modern times of tenants "who, if they should marl and make their holdings much better, fear lest they should be put out, or make a great fine or else pay more rent."
The author, writing from the landowner's point of view, ascribes the rise in rents and the rise in the price of corn' to the " emulation " of tenants in competing for holdings, a practice implying that the agriculture of the period was prosperous.
On the other hand, the small farmers who occupied separated holdings were deterred from improving by the fear of a rise in rent.
The owner in fee and life tenant, the occupier, whether of large or of small holding, whether under lease, or custom, or agreement, or the provisions of the Agricultural Holdings Act - all without distinction have been involved in a general calamity."
The legislative outcome of the findings of this royal commission was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, a measure which continued in force in its entirety till 1901, when a new act came into operation.
Amongst its chief recommendations were those relating to amendments in the Agricultural Holdings Acts, and to tithe rentcharge, railway rates, damage by game, sale of adulterated products, and sale of imported goods (meat, for example) as home produce.
The other measure arising out of the report of the royal commission of 1893 was the Agricultural Holdings Act 1900.
A further act was passed in 1906 (the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906) which improved the tenant's position in respect of freedom of cropping, disposal of produce and compensation for disturbance.
But this aspect of the law, under which the landlord, other than the crown, is himself always a tenant, falls beyond the scope of the present article, which is restricted to those holdings that arise from the hiring and leasing of land.
In the absence of express agreement or custom or statutory provision (such as is made by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883), a tenancy from year to year is determinable on half a year's notice expiring at the end of some current year of the tenancy.
The Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 conferred upon every tenant (with slight exceptions) entire freedom of cropping and of disposal of produce, notwithstanding any custom of the county or explicit agreement to the contrary.
Section 47 of the act gives the tenant the same rights to compensation as if his holding had been a holding under the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908 (vide supra).
Compensation was given to market gardeners for unexhausted improvements by the Market Gardeners' Compensation Act 1895 and by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1906 for improvements effected before the commencement of that act on a holding cultivated to the knowledge of the landlord as a market garden, if the landlord had not dissented in writing to the improvements.
The important sections of these acts were incorporated in the Agricultural Holdings Act 1908, s.
Where a tenant's rent is in arrear, or he fails to remove on the expiry of his lease (Act of Sederunt, 14th of Dec. 1756: Agricultural Holdings Act 1883, s.
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
The Crofters' Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1886, 1887 and 1888, confer on " crofters " special rights.
The Small Holdings Act 1892 applies to Scotland.
Local preachers received notice to quit their holdings, labourers were discharged, those who opened their cottages for meetings were evicted, and to show any hospitality to a travelling preacher was to risk the loss of home and employment.
Though slaves were obtained by the early victories of Rome over her Italian neighbours, no large number was employed on the small holdings of those periods.
But the landlord's interest and the general tone of feeling alike modified practice even before the intervention of legislation; they were habitually continued in their holdings, and came to possess in fact a perpetual and hereditary enjoyment of them.
Although there are some good arable farms in favoured districts, the vast majority of holdings are small crofts occupied mostly by peasants who combine fishing with farming.
Holdings of more than 32 acres constituted only 7% of the total.
16 1920); (b) about 40,000 owners of small holdings, averaging from 26 to 150 ac., formed the backbone of the Lettish middle class, and the liberal professions (nicknamed the " grey barons ") were partly supported by about 10,000 tenants of small farms; (c) the owners of very small holdings in Latgalia and Courland numbered some 10,600.
A portion of the estate, equal in size to the average holdings, is left to the owner, without, however, the proviso that this portion must necessarily coincide with the administrative centre, the manor or family house.
In addition to this, a reserve force called the telekkatonasag was recruited from among the lesser gentry according to their teleks or holdings, every thirty-three teleks being held responsible for a mounted and fully equipped archer.
Two progressive measures of the highest importance were passed by this diet, one making Magyar the official language of Hungary, the other freeing the peasants' holdings from all feudal obligations.
Between 1902 and 1907 about 55 o families were placed on the land, their holdings aggregating over 500,000 acres.
But in spite of the fiasco of the Irish Councils Bill (1907), the struggles over education (Mr Birrell's bill of 1906 being dropped on account of the Lords' amendments), the rejection by the peers of the Plural Voting Abolition Bill (1906), and the failure (again due to the Lords) of the Scottish Small Holdings Bill and Valuation Bill (1907), which at the time made his premiership appear to be a period of bitter and unproductive debate, a good many reforming measures of some moment were carried.
In Burma the cultivators themselves continue to hold the land from government, and the extent of their holdings averages about five acres.
No longer deals with idolatry, but with the corruption of society, and particularly of its leaders - the grasping aristocracy whose whole energies are concentrated on devouring the poor and depriving them of their little holdings, the unjust judges and priests who for gain wrest the law in favour of the rich, the hireling and gluttonous prophets who make war against every one "that putteth not into their mouth," but are ever ready with assurances of Yahweh's favour to their patrons, the wealthy and noble sinners that fatten on the flesh of the poor.
An "anti-suicide bureau" was opened in 1907, and at Boxted, near Colchester, a scheme for Small Holdings has been initiated.
It is estimated that there are about io,000 small holdings averaging about four acres and intensely cultivated.
It includes, for instance, a considerable amount of information regarding holdings and stock.
The number of holdings of one acre and upwards in size rose from 33,332 in 1886 to 58,904 in 1896, and 72,338 in 1906; but the area held in estates of 5000 acres and upwards remains very large and has diminished but slowly despite the severity of the graduated land-tax.
The graduated land-tax, which has since been stiffened, rises from nothing at all upon the smaller holdings to 3d.
The Local Government Acts 1888, 1894, the Agricultural Holdings (England) Acts 1883 to 1906, the Small Holdings and Allotments Act 1907, the Light Railways Act 1896, the Housing of the Working Classes Act 1890, the Workmen's Compensation Act 1906, &c.
It is curious that while in England the burgage-tenure was deemed a species of socage, to distinguish it from the military holdings, in Scotland it was strictly a military holding, by the service of watching and warding for the defence of the burgh.
As a result of their inquiry the Crofters' Holdings Act was passed in 1886, and in the course of a few years some improvement was evident and has since been sustained.
The nobles who dominated the diet did nothing to remove the most crying evil of the country - the miserable state of the peasants, who had been freed from personal serfdom by Napoleon in 1807, but were being steadily driven from their holdings by the landlords.