A beekeeper, seeing the bee collect pollen from flowers and carry it to the hive, says that it exists to gather honey.
- Huber's book or leaf hive (scale $).
The beekeeper opens the lower part of the hive and peers in.
(From Cheshire's Bees and Bee-keeping, Scientific and Practical.) Huber's hive was defective in many respects; the parting of each frame, thus letting loose the whole colony, caused much trouble at times, but it remained the only movable-comb hive till 1838, when Dr Dzierzon - whose theory of parthenogenesis has made his name famous - devised a box-hive with a loose top-bar on which the bees built their combs and a movable side or door, by means of which the frames could be lifted out for inspection.
This phase began to give way in the irth century to a commercial and industrial renaissance, which received a great impetus from the crusading movements - themselves largely economic - and by the 14th century had made the Netherlands the factory of Europe, the Rhine a vast artery of trade, and north Italy a hive of busy cities.
It was empty in the sense that a dying queenless hive is empty.
Nor was a connexion immediately detected between them and the objects found four years later in a tomb at Menidi in Attica and a rock-cut "bee-hive" grave near the Argive Heraeum.
(4) A type of tomb, the dome or "bee-hive," of which the grandest examples known are at Mycenae.
Moreover, Professor Lloyd Morgan found that young birds that had tasted and rejected workers of the hive bee as unpalatable subsequently refused to taste not only drones, which have no sting, but also drone-flies.
Of special interest was a huge bee-hive cavity under the southern porch into which the substructures of the palace had been sunk.
In our well-known hive-bee (Apis) and humble-bees (Bombus) the wax glands are ventral FIG.
Foremost among the latter was the distinguished Swiss naturalist and bee-keeper, Francois Huber, who was led to construct the leaf-hive bearing his name after experimenting with a single comb observatory hive recommended by Reaumur.
Bee-keepers a movable frame which in its most im- stroth's respective distances left between the side-bars and hive walls on each side, and between the lower edge of the bottom-bars and the floor-board.
In this way, „ whatever type or form of t7 " hive is used, the frames are interchangeable.
Notwithstanding this fact, the advancement of apiculture and the continuous development of the modern frame-hive and methods of working have proceeded with such rapidity, both in England and in America, that hives and appliances used prior to 1885 are now obsolete.
The original Langstroth hive was single-walled, held ten frames (size 174 by 9 in.), and had a deep roof, made to cover a case of small honey boxes like the sections now in use; but the cumbersome projecting porch and sides, made to support the roof, are now dispensed with, and the number of frames reduced to eight.
This feature C finds no favour with British bee-keepers, nevertheless the " improved Langstroth " is a useful and simple hive, moderate in price, and no doubt efficient, but not suitable for bees wintered on their summer stands, as nearly all hives are in Great Britain.
Of free space on all sides of the hive proper, but with no packing in between.
Another point of difference between the English and American hive is the roof, which being gable-shaped in the former allows warm packing to be placed directly on the frame tops, so that the bees are covered in when the roof is removed and may be examined or fed with very little disturbance.
Again, the American hive is, as a general rule, set close down on the ground, while stands or short legs are invariably used in Great Britain.
Various causes have contributed to the development of the modern hive, the most important of which are the improvements in methods of extracting honey from combs, and in the manufacture of combfoundation.
The hive bee is, moreover, the only insect known to be capable of domestication, so far as labouring under the direct control of the bee-master is concerned, its habits being admirably adapted for embodying human methods of working for profit in our present-day life.
The modern bee-keeper, therefore, allows just so much drone comb in the hive as will produce a sufficient number of drones to ensure queen-mating, while affording to the bees the satisfaction of dwelling in a home equipped according to natural conditions, and containing all the elements necessary to bee-life.
So long as honey is being gathered in plenty drones are tolerated, but no sooner does the honey harvest show signs of being over than they are mercilessly killed and cast out of the hive by the workers, after a brief idle life of about four months' duration.
On the other hand, worker-bees hatched in the autumn will seven months later be strong with the vigour of lusty youth; able to take their full share in the labour of the hive for six weeks or more in the early spring, which is the most critical period in the colony's existence; hence the value to the apiarist of bees hatched in the autumn.
If healthy and young she begins egg-laying at once, and brood-rearing proceeds at an ever-increasing rate as each week passes, until the hive is brimming over with bees in time for the first honey flow.
It would be difficult to imagine anything more exhilarating to a beginner in bee-keeping than the sight of his first hive in the act of swarming.
When this stage of swarming is reached the bee-keeper has but to take his hiving skep, hold it under the swarm, and shake the bees into it, preparatory to transferring them into a frame-hive already prepared for their re ception.
It shows a portion of honeycomb (natural size) not precisely as it appears when the frame containing it is lifted out of the hive, but as would be seen on two or more combs in the same hive, namely, the various cells built for - and occupied by - queens, drones and workers; also the larvae or grubs in the various stages of transformation FIG.
The bee-keeper, therefore, by the judicious application of a little smoke from smouldering fuel, blown into the hive by means of an appliance known as a beesmoker, alarms the bees and is thus able to manipulate the frames of comb with ease and almost no disturbance.
Having made himself proficient in practical bee-work and chosen a suitable location for his apiary, the bee-keeper should carefully select the particular type of hive most suited to his means and requirements.
And when the sound died quite away, and the hum had ceased, and the most favorable breezes told no tale, I knew that they had got the last drone of them all safely into the Middlesex hive, and that now their minds were bent on the honey with which it was smeared.
History, that is, the unconscious, general, hive life of mankind, uses every moment of the life of kings as a tool for its own purposes.
The bees circle round a queenless hive in the hot beams of the midday sun as gaily as around the living hives; from a distance it smells of honey like the others, and bees fly in and out in the same way.
But one has only to observe that hive to realize that there is no longer any life in it.
In and out of the hive long black robber bees smeared with honey fly timidly and shiftily.
Formerly only bees laden with honey flew into the hive, and they flew out empty; now they fly out laden.
The beekeeper closes the hive, chalks a mark on it, and when he has time tears out its contents and burns it clean.
Apiarium or apiary, a beehouse or hive, is used figuratively by old writers for a place of industry, e.g.
In the later period a peculiar "bee-hive" tomb became common, sometimes wholly or partly excavated, sometimes (as in the magnificent Mycenaean "Treasuries") constructed domewise.
Most of the genera are " solitary " in habit, the female sex being undifferentiated; but among the humble-bees and hive-bees we find, as in social wasps and ants, the occurrence of workers, and the consequent elaboration of a wonderful insect-society.
With Apis, the genus of the hive-bee, we come to the most highly-specialized members of the family - better known,perhaps, than any other insects, on account of the long domestication of many of the species or races.
The workers, who control the polity of the hive (the "queen" being exceedingly "limited" in her monarchy), arrange if possible that young queens shall develop only when the population of the hive has become so congested that it is desirable to send off a swarm.
The young queen, left in the old home, mounts high into the air for her nuptial flight, and then returns to the hive and her duties of egg-laying.
For recent controversy on parthenogenesis in the hive bee, see J.
The work by which he is known is the Fable of the Bees, published first in 1705 under the title of The Grumbling Hive, or Knaves Turn'd Honest (two hundred doggerel couplets).
Honey was a large crop with the early settlers, who put a hive and honey-bees on the state-seal of Deseret and of Utah.
In every direction the country looks like a veritable hive of human activity and enterprise, every town and village full of factories, and alive with the din of machinery.
Cathir) the houses within the rampart were made of stone in the form of a bee-hive, and similar cloghans, as they are called, are found in the western isles of Scotland.
The culture prevailing in the Horn of Africa is, naturally, mainly Hamito Semitic; here are found both cylindrical and bee-hive huts, the sword (which has been adopted by the Masai to the south), the lyre (which has found its way to some of the Nilotic tribes) and the head-rest.
The military The return rule of the marquis de Sgur eliminated the plebeians of feud.2!from the army; while the great lords, drones in the Isin tothe hive, worked with a kind of fever at the enforcement offensive.
1789 with the leaf-hive of Huber, so called from its opening like the leaves of a book.
- Huber's bar-hive, showing how comb is built.
Langstroth, in his measurements, hit upon the happy mean which keeps bees from propolizing or fastening the frames to the hive body, as they assuredly would do if sufficient space had not been allowed for free passage round the side-bars; it is equally certain that if too much space had been provided, they would fill it with comb and thus render the frame immovable.
In addition to these benefits, Langstroth's frame and hive possessed the enormous advantage over Dzierzon's of being manipulated from above, so that any single frame could be raised for inspection without disturbing the others.
Langstroth's space-measurements have remained practically unaltered notwithstanding the many improvements in hive-making, and in the various sizes of movable frames, since introduced and used in different parts of the world.
In the United States of America Langstroth's frame and hive are the acknowledged " standards " among the great body of bee-keepers, although about a dozen different frames, Size of varying more or less in size, have their adherents.
One of the best-known hives in England is that known as the W.B.C. hive, devised in 1890 by W.
- Hive bee (Apis mellifica), natural size.
By so doing a far greater weight of surplus per hive may be secured, and extracted honey will keep in good condition for years, while comb-honey must be sold before granulation sets in.
Drones, bumblebees, wasps, and butterflies knock awkwardly against the walls of the hive in their flight.
- Jaws of Hive-bee (Apis mellifica).
In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.
Of his works the best known is the Roman Bee-hive (De roomsche byen-korf), published in 1569 during his exile in Friesland, a bitter satire on the faith and practices of the Roman Catholic Church.
There is a common English Syrphid fly (Eristalis tenax) known as the drone-fly from its resemblance to a large hive or honey bee.
Among the humble-bees (Bombus) the workers help the queen, who takes her share in the duties of the nest; the distinction between queen and workers is therefore less absolute than in the hive-bees (Apis), whose queen, relieved of all nursing and building cares by the workers, devotes her whole energies b FIG.
The hairy covering, so notable in the hive-bee and especially in humble-bees, is greatly reduced among bees that follow a parasitic mode of life.
A-d, Hive-bee (Apis).
On the approach of winter the males, having no further function to perform for the community, are refused food-supplies by the workers, and are either excluded or banished from the hive to perish.
The dome-shaped straw skep of our forefathers may be regarded as the typical bee-hive of all time and of all civilized countries; indeed, it may with truth be said that as a healthy and convenient home for the honey-bee it has no equal.
13) - to raise up any frame between two sheets of glass which confined the bees and allowed him to study the process of comb-building abserr's better than any hive we know of to-day.
The beekeeper opens the upper part of the hive and examines the super.
Results like the above compared with those of the skeppist beekeeper of former days, who was well pleased with an average of 20 to 25 lb per hive, may be regarded as wonderful, but they are matters of fact.