Europus, Carchemish, the ancient Hittite capital), near which the Sajur (Sagura; Sangar of the Assyrian inscriptions) enters from the west, to Meskene, 2 m.
As far as the Khabur Mesopotamia seems to have been a wellinhabited country from at least the 15th century B.C., when it constituted the Hittite kingdom of Mitanni, down to about the 12th century A.D., and the same is true of the country on the Syrian side of the Euphrates as far as the eastern limit of the Palmyrene.
The growing prominence of the new northern group of " Hittite " states continued to occupy the energies of Egypt, and when again we have more external light upon Palestinian history, the Hittites are found strongly entrenched in the land.
The Hittite power became weaker, and the invaders, in spite of defeat, appear to have succeeded in maintaining themselves on the sea coast.
Husband Uriah the Hittite could not go unavenged.
This is equally true both of the pictographic and the linear Aegean systems. Its nearest affinities are with the "Asianic" scripts, preserved to us by Hittite, Cypriote and south-west Anatolian (Pamphylian, Lycian and Carian) inscriptions.
In spite of many comparisons made with Egyptian, Babylonian and "Hittite" plans, both these arrangements remain incongruous with any remains of prior or contemporary structures elsewhere.
Took Carchemish and ended Hittite power.
Those descending from Geuksun (Cocysus), Albistan-Yarpuz (Arabissus), and Malatia (Melitene)---is shown to have had early importance, not only by the occurrence of Marasi in Assyrian inscriptions, but by the discovery of several "Hittite" monuments on the spot.
The facial contours of the modern Jew are predominantly those of the ancient Hittite, who was certainly not a Semite.
One has hitherto supposed that he was related to the Mediterraneans, the race to which the Bronze Age Greeks and Italians belonged; but this supposed connexion may well break down in the matter of skull form, as the Hittite skull, like that of the modern Anatolian, probably inclined to be brachycephalic. whereas that of the Mediterranean inclined in the other direction, And now the Bohemian Assyriologist Prof. Hrozny has brought forward evidence s that the cuneiform script adopted by the Hittites from the Mesopotamians expressed an Indo-European tongue, nearly akin to Latin!
This conclusion is not yet universally accepted, but it seems difficult on the evidence to avoid the conclusion that Prof. Hrozny is right, and if so the curious resemblances of some of the externals of Roman and Hittite religion, and the legendary and other connexions between the Etruscans and Asia Minor, are seen in a new light.
The peculiar characteristics of Syro-Hittite art, and its relation to that of Assyria, are matters of great interest to the student of the civilization and art of the Nearer East.
Equally interesting are the relation of the Syro-Hittite with the Minoan, and we seem to find in certain objects found in Egypt and Cyprus and dating probably from the 14th to the Toth centuries, proof of the existence of a mixed art of Syrian origin, probably in Cilicia (Alashiya) at that time.
87 (" Hittite Burial Customs "); (14) Ann.
This was the first "Hittite" monument discovered in modern times (early 18th century, by the Swede Otter, an emissary of Louis XIV.).
The newly discovered Hittite inscriptions have now thrown a welcome ray of light on the primitive Iranian creed (Ed.
But it is rather a revived than a new capital; Khalep was a very ancient Syrian and probably "Hittite" city of importance, known from Babylonian, Assyrian and Egyptian records.
The Hittite warriors upon north Syrian sculptures (Zenjirli, perhaps ' all to 9th centuries) have a short-sleeved tunic which ends above the knees, and this type of garment recurs over a large area with numerous small variations (with or without girdle, slits at the neck, or bordering).
- Hittite Women.
Elongated and more pointed it is the archaic crown of the Pharaohs (symbolical of upper Egypt), is worn by a Hittite god of the 14th century, and finds parallels upon old FIG.
- Hittite cultus images from Asia Minor, Crete and Weather-god.
Finally the cylindrical hat of Hittite kings and queens reappears with lappets in Phoenicia (Perrot and Chipiez, Phoen.
Sargon, who meanwhile had crushed the confederacy of the northern nations, had taken (717 B.C.) the Hittite stronghold of Carchemish and had annexed the future kingdom of Ecbatana, was now accepted as king by the Babylonian priests and his claim to be the successor of Sargon of Akkad acknowledged up to the time of his murder in 705 B.C. His son Sennacherib, who succeeded Serena- hi m on the 12th of Ab, did not possess the military or cherlb. ?
3) to Jerusalem, "thy mother (was) an Hittite," is quoted in confirmation.
It appears, therefore, that there survived in Palestine to late times a detached Hittite population, with which Hebrews sometimes intermarried (Judges iii.
(b) An independent and powerful Hittite people was domiciled N.
64, " Tahtim-hodshi," based on the Septuagint version -H y XETTElµ KaSi i S be accepted, we hear of them at Kadesh on Orontes; and some minor Hittite cities are mentioned, e.g.
Meanwhile Wright, Ward and Sayce had all suggested " Hittite " as a substitute for " Hamathite," because no other N.
Jerablus was confidently identified with Carchemish (but without positive proof to this day), and the occurrence of Hamathite monuments there was held to confirm the Hittite theory.
In 1876 Sayce pointed out the resemblance between certain Hittite signs and characters in the lately deciphered Cypriote syllabary, and suggested that the comparison might lead to a beginning of decipherment; but the hope has proved vain.
These, he now saw, bore Hittite pictographs.
Other rock-sculptures at Giaur Kalessi, in Galatia, and in the Karabel pass near Smyrna, he suspected of belonging to the same class 2; and visiting the last-named locality in the autumn, he found Hittite pictographs accompanying one of the two figures.
3 He announced his discoveries in 1880, and proclaimed the fact that a great Hittite empire, extending from Kadesh to Smyrna, had risen from the dead.
Round the rim was a cuneiform legend, and in the field a Hittite figure with six Hittite symbols engraved twice over on either hand of it.
King of the country E."), Sayce distributed phonetic values, corresponding to the syllables of the two proper names, among four of the Hittite characters, reserving two as " ideograms " of " king " and " country " and launched into the field of decipherment.
Since then a number of other monuments have been found, some on new sites, others on sites already known to be Hittite, the distribution of which can be seen by reference to the accompanying map. It will be observed that, so far as at present known, they cluster most closely in Commagene, Cappadocia and S.
Nothing purely Hittite has been found at Sardis or in any W.
Asian excavation; but small Hittite objects have been sold in Smyrna and Aidin.
Of Konia; megalithic building with rude and greatly defaced reliefs, not certainly Hittite: no inscription.
Of Konia; gigantic stela, or composite statue (figure on animals), not certainly Hittite; no inscription.
Konia; relief of warrior, drawn by Texier in 1835 and since lost; of very doubtful Hittite character.
A gold inscribed Hittite ring, now at Oxford, was bought there in 1903.
Evidently an important Hittite site.
The whole makes the most extensive group of Hittite remains yet known.
The latter was an ally of Katashmanturgu of Babylon, 2 The "Niobe " statue near Manisa was not definitely known for " Hittite " till 3882, when G.
Sues where Hittite remains pave beer discovered are shown thus - Boghaz Keul 1 after a name implies doubt as to real provenance of the remalrts or their llittite character.
Winckler claims to read Haiti as the name of the possessors of Boghaz Keui, and to find in this name the proof of the Hittite character of Syro-Cappadocian power and of the imperial predominance of the city.
Sculptured wall-dados, but no Hittite inscriptions.
The most famous of Hittite reliefs is here - a double-headed eagle " displayed " on the flank of one of the gateway sphinxes.
The expedition sent out by Cornell University in 1907 found several Hittite inscriptions on rocks near Darende in the valley of the Tokhma Su.
And two lions) with inscriptions, both in relief and incised (part are now at Constantinople, part in Berlin and America); evidently one of the most important of Hittite sites.
Hittite, cuneiform and old Aramaean monuments were found with many small objects, most of which have been taken to Berlin; but no Hittite inscriptions came to light.
Ionian culture and art, though little known in their earlier phases, derive their inspiration on the one side from those of the old Aegean civilization, on the other from the Oriental models which penetrated to the coast through the Hittite civilization of Asia Minor.
The accession of Solomon had not been without bloodshed, and Judah, together with David's old general Joab and his faithful priest Abiathar, were opposed to the son of a woman who had been the wife of a Hittite warrior.
L5 Baron Oppenheim's excavations at Tell Halaf have resulted in the recovery of reliefs of barbaric style, simulating the Syro-Hittite, from the palace of a local king, Kapara, of about the same period as Sinjirli and Sakchegozii (Toth-9th centuries B.C.), and pottery of all ages, going back to the chalcolithic period.ls The neolithic and chalcolithic pottery of Mesopotamia and Persia is one of the chief archaeological discoveries of late years in the Near East, and attention has recently been directed to it again by the important finds at Abu Shahrein (the ancient Eridu) and Tell el `Obeid, near Ur.
It resembles the sceptre curved at the end, which was carried by old Hittite gods.
For Hittite material, see the collection by L.