- Before passing to the time of Mahomet it is necessary to take account of three other Arabian powers, those of Hira, Ghassan and Kinda.
The kingdom of Hira (Hira) was established in the boundary land between the Euphrates and the Arabian desert, a district renowned for its good air and extr a ordinary fertility.
The chief town was Hira, a few miles south of the site of the later town of Kuf a.
The inhabitants of this land are said in Tabari's history to have been of three classes: - (s) The Tanukh (Tnuhs), who lived in tents and were made up of Arabs from the Tehama and Nejd, who had united in Bahrein to form a new tribe, and who migrated from there to Hira, probably at the beginning or middle of the 3rd century A.D., when the Arsacid power was growing weak.
(2) The `Ibad or `Ibadites, who dwelt in the town of Hira in houses and so led a settled life.
These were Christians, whose ecclesiastical language was Syriac, though the language of intercourse was Arabic. A Christian bishop of Hira is known to have attended a synod in 410.
The kingdom of Hira was never really independent, but always stood in a relation of dependence on Persia, probably receiving pay from it and employing Persian soldiers.
Rothstein's Die Dynastie der aakhmiden in al-Hira (Berlin, 1899); Th.
The first certain prince of the Jafnid house was Harith ibn Jabala, who, according to the chronicle of John Malalas, conquered Mondhir (Mundhir) of Hira in 528.
In the following year, according to Procopius, Justinian perceived the value of the Ghassanids as an outpost of the Roman empire, and as opponents of the Persian dependants of Hira, and recognized Harith as king of the Arabs and patrician of the Roman empire.
K They seem to have stood in much the same relation to the rulers of Yemen, as the people of Hira to the Persians and the Ghassanids to Rome.
Details of their history are not known, but they seem to have gained power at one time even over the aakhmids of Hira; and to have ruled over Bahrein as well as Yemama until the battle of Shi'b ul Jabala, when they lost this province to Hira.
" Samuel ibn Adiya" in Jewish Encyc. and authorities there quoted), and some Christians such as `Adi'ibn Zaid of Hira, who sang alike of the pleasures of drink and of death (ed.
All this work was in the style known as hira-makie (flat decoration); that is to say, having the decorative design in the same plane as the ground.
HIRA, the capital of an Arabian kingdom, founded in the 2nd century A.D., on the western edge of Irak, was situated at 32° N., 44° 20' E., about 4 m.
After the battle of Kadesiya and the founding of Kufa by the Arabs, Hira lost its importance and fell into decay.
India was no doubt the source of all the large stones of antiquity; a stone of 67* carats was found at Wajra Karur in the Chennur group in 1881, and one of 2102 carats at Hira Khund in 1809.
Yule, from Chinese annals of the 7th and 8th centuries, says that Chinese ships came as far as Siraf (Tahiri) and the Euphrates, where they lay at Hira near Kufa, and adds that this trade fell off in A.D.
At that time the small Arabian kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira had arisen in the western and eastern borderlands of cultivation; these now presented to Moslem conquest its nearest and natural goal.
The kingdoms of Ghassan and Hira, advanced posts hitherto, now became the headquarters of the Arabs; the new empire had its centres on the one hand at Damascus, on the other hand at Kufa and Basra, the two newly-founded cities in the region of old Babylonia.
Moawiya, a great-grandson of Ali's brother Ja t far, put himself at the head of a band of Shiites and maulas, made himself master of Kufa and marched upon Hira, where, since Yusuf b.
Ilarashi fled to Merwan, Ibn Omar to Hira, which, after a siege of two months, he was obliged to surrender in Shawwal 127 (August A.D.
Abu'l-Abbas himself killed those he could lay his hands on in Hira and Kufa, amongst them Suleiman b.
He resided outside the town with the Khorasanian troops, and with them went first to Hira, then to Hashimiya, which he caused to be built in the neighbourhood of Anbar.
Another of his foundations was Vologesias (the Arabian Ullaish), situated near Hira on the Euphrates, south of Babylon, which did appreciable damage to the commerce of Seleucia and is often.
One of them, however, Bahram V., found an auxiliary in the Arab chief Mondhir, who had founded a principality in Hira, west of the lower Euphrates; and, as he pledged himB~ram ~ self to govern otherwise than his father, he received general recognition.
He consequently left Medina in 733, and went to Alexandria, then to Kufa and Hira, and finally to Bagdad, where the caliph Mansur provided him with the means of writing his great work.
The native tradition regards an immigration of Hira Arabs into S.
About the same time, or a little later (in the reign of Saladin), it believes that Hermon was colonized by a population of 15,000 Hira and Yemenite Arabs, who had sojourned awhile in Hauran.
The Shehab family, originally Hira Arabs, which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus, and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Kaisi faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain.