His work is not essentially different from that of his predecessors Rhazes and Ali; all present the doctrine of Galen, and through Galen the doctrine of Hippocrates, modified by the system of Aristotle.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
From the time of Hippocrates onwards the malarial or periodical fevers have engaged the attention of innumerable observers, who have suggested various theories of causation, and have sometimes anticipated - vaguely, indeed, but with surprising accuracy - the results of modern research; but the true nature of the disease remained in doubt until the closing years of the 19th century.
Climata based on the length of the longest day were introduced by Hippocrates (c. 400 B.C.).
The Life of Hippocrates (in Ideler) probably formed one of the collection of medical biographies by Soranus referred to by Suidas, and is valuable as the only authority for the life of the great physician, with the exception of articles in SuIdas and Stephanus of Byzantium (s.v.
Herodotus (l.c.), to whom with Hippocrates (De acre', &c. 24, sqq.) we owe our earliest knowledge (Homer, Il.
The physical features of the Scyths are not described by Herodotus, but Hippocrates (Lc.) draws a picture of them which makes them very similar to the Mongols as they appeared to the Franciscan missionaries in the 13th century.
Hippocrates says that this only applies to the ruling class, not to the slaves, but gives as the reason the want of exercise among the former.
The representations of nomads on objects of Greek art show people with full beards and shaggy hair, such as cannot be reconciled with Hippocrates; but the only reliefs which seem to be accurate belong to a late date when the ruling clan was Sarmatian rather than Scythic.
1-142 (editions of Blakesley, Rawlinson, Macan); Hippocrates, De Aere, &c., c. 24 sqq.; for geography alone: Strabo vii.
Gela enjoyed its greatest prosperity under Hippocrates (498-491 B.C.), whose dominion extended over a considerable part of the island.
It is also repeatedly mentioned (Kpkos) by Homer, Hippocrates and other Greek writers; and the word "crocodile" was long supposed to have been derived from Kancos and whence we have such stories as that "the crocodile's tears are never true save when he is forced where saffron groweth" (Fuller's Worthies).
Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela (498-491), threatened the independence of Syracuse as well as of other cities, and it was saved only by the joint intervention of Corinth and Corcyra and by the cession of the vacant territory of Camarina.
In 485 the Gamori, who had been expelled by the Demos and the Sicel serfs, and had taken refuge at Casmenae, craved help of Gelo, the successor of Hippocrates, who took possession of Syracuse without opposition, and made it the seat of his power.
Claudius Marcellus was then in command of the Roman army in Sicily, and he threatened the Syracusans with attack unless they would get rid of Epicydes and Hippocrates, the heads of the anti-Roman faction.
The general feeling was now against any negotiations with the Roman general, and, putting themselves under Epicydes and Hippocrates, they closed their gates on him.
We find a distinct and organized profession; we find a system of treatment, especially in regard to injuries, which it must have been the work of long experience to frame; we meet with a nomenclature of parts of the body substantially the same (according to Daremberg) as that employed long afterwards in the writings of Hippocrates; in short, we find a science and an organization which, however imperfect as compared with those of later times, are yet very far from being in their beginning.
We must therefore hasten onward to the age of Pericles, in which Hippocrates, already called "the Great," was in medicine as complete a representative of the highest efforts of the Greek intellect as were his contemporaries the great philosophers, orators and tragedians.
Of these certainly many are falsely ascribed to the historical Hippocrates of Cos; others are almost as certainly rightly so ascribed; others again are clearly works of his school, whether from his hand or not.
The latter was that to which Hippocrates belonged, and where he gave instruction; and accordingly it may be taken that works of this school, when not obviously of a different date, are Hippocratic in doctrine if not in actual authorship.
The first grand characteristic of Hippocratic medicine is the high conception of the duties and status of the physician, shown in the celebrated "Oath of Hippocrates" and elsewhere - equally free from the mysticism of a priesthood and the vulgar pretensions of a mercenary craft.
So matured a professional sentiment may perhaps have been more the growth of time and organization than the work of an individual genius, but certainly corresponds with the character universally attributed to Hippocrates himself.
It is doubtful whether the treatise in which this theory is fully expounded is as old as Hippocrates himself; but it was regarded as a Hippocratic doctrine, and, when taken up and expanded by Galen, its terms not only became the common property of the profession, but passed into general literature and common language.
Not that Hippocrates taught, as he was afterwards reproached with teaching, that nature is sufficient for the cure of diseases; for he held strongly the efficacy of art.
Hippocrates, influenced as is thought by the Pythagorean doctrines of number, taught that they were to be expected on days fixed by certain numerical rules, in some cases on odd, in others on even numbers - the celebrated doctrine of "critical days."
The pulse is not spoken of in any of the works now attributed to Hippocrates himself, though it is mentioned in other works of the collection.
The school of Cnidus, as distinguished from that of Cos, of which Hippocrates is the representative, appears to have differed in attaching more importance to the differences of special diseases, and to have made more use of drugs.
Direct opponents or repudiators of the authority of Hippocrates were rare, all generally appealing to his authority.
After Hippocrates the progress of medicine in Greece does not call for any special remark in such a sketch as this, but mention must be made of one great name.
The century after the death of Hippocrates is a time almost blank in medical annals.
He professed himself a close adherent of Hippocrates, and adopted his theory of the humours.
Erasistratus, instead of following Hippocrates as Herophilus did, depreciated him, and seems to have been rather aggressive and independent in his views.
The Herophilists still reverenced the memory of Hippocrates, and wrote numerous commentaries on his works.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
The doctrines of Hippocrates... were no doubt very widely accepted, but the practice of the Hippocratic school had been greatly improved in almost every department - surgery and obstetrics being probably those in which the Alexandrian practitioners could compare most favourably with those of modern times.
To have made it his object to reform these evils, to reconcile scientific acquirements and practical skill, to bring back the unity of medicine as it had been understood by Hippocrates, and at the same time to raise the dignity of medical practitioners.
His great work Evvaywyai tar pucai, of which only about one-third has been preserved, was a medical encyclopaedia founded on extracts from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides (fl.
These poor compilations, together with Latin translations of certain works of Galen and Hippocrates, formed a medical literature, meagre and unprogressive indeed, but of which a great part survived through the middle ages till the discovery of printing and revival of learning.
873) or Joannitius, the translator and commentator of Hippocrates and Galen, belong to this period.
In Mahommedan Spain he was lees regarded, but in Europe his works even eclipsed and superseded those of Hippocrates and Galen.
The greater part is taken from Hippocrates, Galen, Dioscorides and later Greek writers.
The study of Hippocrates, Galen, and other classics was recommended by Cassiodorus (6th century), and in the original mother-abbey of Monte Cassino medicine was studied; but there was not there what could be called a medical school; nor had this foundation any connexion (as has been supposed) with the famous school of Salerno.
None of these Salernitan works rise much above the rank of compilations, being founded on Hippocrates, Galen and later Greek writers, with an unmistakable mixture of the doctrines of the methodists.
The school of Salerno thus forms a bridge between the ancient and the modern medicine, more direct though less conspicuous than that circuitous route, through Byzantium, Bagdad and Cordova, by which Hippocrates and Galen, in Arabian dress, again entered the European world.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
The basis of medicine through the middle ages had been literary and dogmatic, and it was literary and dogmatic still; but the medical literature now brought to light - including as it did the more important works of Hippocrates and Galen, many of them hitherto unknown, and in addition the forgotten element of Latin medicine, especially the work of Celsus - was in itself far superior to the second-hand compilations and incorrect versions which had formerly been accepted as standards.
Nearly all medieval medical literature was condemned under this name; and for it the humanists proposed to substitute the originals of Hippocrates and Galen, thus leading back medicine to its fountain-head.
Rabelais not only lectured on Galen and Hippocrates, but edited some works of the latter; and Michael Servetus (1511-1553), in a little tract Syruporum universa ratio, defended the practice of Galen as compared with that of the Arabians.
The great Aldine Press made an important contribution to the work, by editiones principes of Hippocrates and Galen in the original.
On the other hand, he spoke with respect of Hippocrates, and wrote a commentary on his Aphorisms. In this we see a spirit very different from the enthusiasm of the humanists for a purer and nobler philosophy than the scholastic and Arabian versions of Greek thought.
The practice and theory of medicine were mainly founded upon Hippocrates and Galen, with everincreasing additions from the chemical school.
It is noteworthy that concurrently with the rise of clinical study the works of Hippocrates were more and more valued, while Galen began to sink into the background.
As his model in medical methods, Sydenham repeatedly and pointedly refers to Hippocrates, and he has not unfairly been called the English Hippocrates.
Nearly the same thing is true even of the Aphorisms, in which, following the example of Hippocrates, he endeavoured to sum up the results of his long experience.
In this he claimed to have made the most salutary reform because all physicians from Hippocrates had treated diseases by depletion and debilitating measures with the object of curing by elimination.
A physician of Plymouth, John Huxham (1694-1768), made researches on epidemic fevers, in the spirit of Sydenham and Hippocrates, which are of the highest importance.
Hippocrates had no opportunity of verification by necropsy, and Sydenham ignored pathology; yet the clinical features of many but recently described diseases, such, for example, as that named after Graves, and myxoedema, both associated with perversions of the thyroid gland, lay as open to the eye of physicians in the past as to our own.
Of other Greek prose writers he knew Thucydides and Hippocrates; while of the poets he expresses in more than one passage the highest admiration of Homer, whom he imitated in several places.
In addition to persons of high rank, poets, legendary and others (Linus, Orpheus, Homer, Aeschylus and Sophocles), legislators and physicians (Lycurgus, Hippocrates), the patrons of various trades or handicrafts (artists, cooks, bakers, potters), the heads of philosophical schools (Plato, Democritus, Epicurus) received the honours of a cult.
HIPPOCRATES, Greek philosopher and writer, termed the " Father of Medicine," was born, according to Soranus, in Cos, in the first year of the Both Olympiad, i.e.
Born of a family of priest-physicians, and inheriting all its traditions and prejudices, Hippocrates was the first to cast superstition aside, and to base the practice of medicine on the principles of inductive philosophy.
And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
Hippocrates was remarkable not only as a surgeon but also because he systematized medicine in his spare time.
Hippocrates has even left directions how we should cut our nails; that is, even with the ends of the fingers, neither shorter nor longer.
He was distinguished in his profession as a physician, and wrote a number of medical works in Arabic (including a commentary on the aphorisms of Hippocrates), all of which were translated into Hebrew, and most of them into Latin, becoming the text-books of Europe in the succeeding centuries.