Persian, after being itself transformed by Arabic, has in its turn largely influenced all west Asiatic Moslem literature from Hindustani to Turkish.
According to the Thuggee and Dacoity Report for 1879, the number of registered Punjabi and Hindustani Thugs then still amounted to 344; but all of these had already been registered as such before 1852, and the whole fraternity may now be considered as extinct.
The five mathnawis, from the Makhzan to the Haft Paikar, form Nizami's so-called "Quintuple" (Khamsa) or "Five Treasures" (Panj Ganj), and have been taken as pattern by all the later epic poets in the Persian, Turkish, Chaghatai and Hindustani languages.
The Hindustani form is rai, and the title of the Hindu emperor of Vijayanagar in S.
He published two volumes of translations of Arabic poetry (1885 and 1894), a translation of two ancient Arabic Diwans (1913), as well as articles on Hindustani and Arabic literature in the E.B.
Among these, besides the classical and the modern European languages, were included Persian, Arabic, Hindustani, Sanskrit and even Malay.
The chief languages of the presidency are Sindhi in Sind, Cutchi in Cutch, Gujarati and Hindustani in Gujarat, Mahratti in Thana and the central division, Gujarati and Mahratti in Khandesh, and Mahratti and Kanarese in the southern division.
Bhang, the Hindustani siddhi or sabzi, consists of the dried leaves and small stalks of the hemp; a few fruits occur in it.