It is written in pure Baiswari or Eastern Hindi, in stanzas called chaupais, broken by dohas or couplets, with an occasional soratha and chhand - the latter a hurrying metre of many rhymes and alliterations.
The Kaffirs have their own organ, Ipipa lo Hlunga (the paper of grievances), issued at Maritzburg, and the Asiatics, Indian Opinion, a weekly paper started in 1903 and printed in English, Gujarati, Hindi and Tamil.
The doctrines of Kabir are taught, mostly in the form of dialogues, in numerous Hindi works, composed by his disciples and adherents, who, however, usually profess to give the teacher's own words.
In October 1905 most of Sambalpur and five Oriya-speaking hill-states were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal, while the Hindi-speaking states of Chota Nagpur were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces.
The chief languages of Berar are Marathi, Urdu, Gondi, Banjari, Hindi, Marwari, Telugu, Korku and Gujarati.
There are six main divisions of the people: the Dravidian tribes, who formerly held the country; Hindi-speaking immigrants from the north and north-west into Saugor, Damoh, the Nerbudda valley and the open country of Mandla and Seoni; Rajasthani-speaking immigrants from Central India into Nimar, Betul and parts of Hoshangabad, Narsinghpur and Chhindwara; Marathi-speaking immigrants from Bombay into Berar, the Mahratta districts and the southern tahsil of Betul; the Telugu castes in the Sironcha and Chanda tahsil of Chanda and the south of Bastar; and the Hindu immigrants into Chhattisgarh, who are supposed to have arrived many centuries ago when the Haihaya dynasty of Ratanpur rose into power.
The chief of these languages are Western Hindi, Eastern Hindi, Rajasthani, Marathi, Oriya, Telugu and Dravidian dialects.
They are called Piling Lanka, (foreign coins), from the Hindi tank - a, a rupee.
"It was discovered," says a contemporary Arab historian, "that the whole of that fortress and city was a college, and in the Hindi tongue they call a college Bihar."
According to native usage, however, " Hindustan " is limited either to that portion of the peninsula lying north of the Vindhya mountains, or yet more strictly to the upper basin of the Ganges where Hindi is the spoken language.
The most important Aryan languages are Bengali, Bihari, Eastern Hindi and Oriya.
As a rule Bengali is the language of Bengal proper, Hindi of Behar and Chota Nagpur, and Oriya of Orissa.
He now translated the whole of the New Testament into Hindi also, and into Persian twice.
His Prithiraj Rasau, a poem of some aoo,000 stanzas, chronicling his master's deeds and the contemporary history of his part of India, is valuable not only as historical material but as the earliest monument of the Western Hindi language, and the first of the long series of bardic chronicles for which Rajputana is celebrated.
While nearly fifty languages in all are spoken in the provinces, out of every 10,000 people 4527 speak Western Hindi, 3125 Eastern Hindi, 2109 Bihari and 211 Central Pahari.
On the average in the province, before partition, out of every 1000 persons 528 spoke Bengali, 34 1 Hindi and Bihari, and 79 Oriya.
The province was reconstituted in 1905, when the Chittagong, Dacca and Rajshahi divisions, the district of Malda and the state of Hill Tippera were transferred from Bengal to a new province, Eastern Bengal and Assam; the five Hindi-speaking states of Chota Nagpur, namely Chang Bhakar, Korea, Sirguja, Udaipur and Jashpur, were transferred from Bengal to the Central Provinces; and Sambalpur and the five Oriya states of Bamra, Rairakhol, Sonpur, Patna and Kalahandi were transferred from the Central Provinces to Bengal.
The vernacular language is not Bengali, but a dialect of Hindi; and the people likewise resemble those of Upper India.
Tulsi Das (1532-1623), the greatest and most famous of Hindi poets, was a Sarwariya Brahman, born, according to tradition, in A.D.
About forty volumes are available in English, and many have been translated into most of the European languages as well as into Arabic, Hindi and Japanese.
Granum, Hindi Chanel, Bengali Chhola, Ital.