There were no broad, smooth highways as there are now.
The chief objects for which the city debt was created were in 1907, in millions of dollars: highways, 24.07, parks, 16.29, drainage and sewers, 15.05, rapid transit, 13.57 and water-works, 4.53.
The management and maintenance of the highways and bridges is vested in county road trustees, viz.
One of the consequences of the act was the abolition of tolls, statutelabour, causeway mail and other exactions for the maintenance of bridges and highways, and all turnpike roads became highways, and all highways became open to the public free of tolls and other exactions.
These evidences of civilization did not make their appearance until the first great era of Japanese reform, the Taika period (645650), when stations were established along the principal highways, provision was made of post-horses, and a system of bells and checks was devised for distinguishing official carriers.
Period the city had almost wholly lost its commercial importance owing to the changes in the great highways of trade.
Each county has its own administrative boards and officers; and there are two justices of the peace and two constables for every township. The board of supervisors, consisting of not more than seven members, elected for a term of three years, has the care of county property and the management of county business, including highways and bridges; it fixes the rate of county taxes within prescribed limits, and levies the taxes for state and county purposes.
In addition to the usual state boards of education (1837), agriculture (1852), railroad commissioners (1869), health (1869), statistics of labour, fisheries and game, charity (1879), the dairy bureau (1891), of insanity (1898), prison, highways, insurance and banking commissions, there are also commissions on ballot-law, voting machines, civil service (1884), uniformity of legislation, gas and electric lighting corporations, conciliation and arbitration in labour disputes (1886), &c. There are efficient state boards of registration in pharmacy, dentistry and medicine.
Crossings of railways and highways,' and in 1894 the commonwealth began the construction and maintenance of state highways.2 Since 1885, in Boston, and since 1894, in Fall River, the administration of the city police departments, including the granting of liquor licences, has been in the hands of state commissioners (one commissioner in Boston, a board in Fall River) appointed by the governor.
In the larger " towns " the officers elected at this meeting may consist of five, seven or nine selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer, three or more assessors, three or more overseers of the poor, one or more collectors of taxes, one or more auditors, one or more surveyors of highways, a road commissioner, a sewer commissioner, a board of health, one or more constables, two or more field drivers, two or more fence viewers, and a tree warden; but in the smaller " towns " the number of selectmen niay be limited to three, the selectmen may assess the taxes, be overseers of the poor, and act as a board of health, and the treasurer or constable may collect the taxes.
Of the National Museum and the American Museum; Archer Butler Hulbert, Historic Highways of America, 16 vols.
The other large river valleys are far less useful as highways, though each is paralleled by one or more railways.
Each township is governed by the electors assembled annually (the first Tuesday in March) in town meeting and by three supervisors, a clerk, a treasurer, an assessor, a justice of the peace and a constable, and an overseer of highways for each road district, all elected at the town meeting, justice of the peace and a constable for a term'of two years, the other officers for a term of one year; each overseer of highways is chosen by the electors of his district.
It lies on the western slope of the Chiltern Hills, close to the entrance to a narrow valley which pierces them, and forms one of the highways through them to London, carrying the railway, the Grand Junction Canal, and a main road.
And management of public highways and ferries, and the care of the poor.
He was ordained deacon in the Church of England, 1740, but Whitefield recommended him to leave his curacies and go into the highways and hedges.
And the Church, going out into the highways and the hedges, has tried to entice men with the offer of generous Indulgence."
Palma is the meeting place of all the highways in the island, and the terminus of the railway to Inca, Manacor, and Alcudia.
But there was one city of the East which, lying apart from the crowded highways of the world, had sunk to a mere provincial town, and yet possessed associations which the church of the 5th century felt herself powerless to eradicate.
These officers always include three selectmen, a clerk, a treasurer and one or more auditors, and they may include any or all of the following: assessors, who together with the selectmen constitute a board for the assessment of taxes, one or more collectors of taxes, overseers of the poor, constables, surveyors of highways, fence-viewers, sealers of weights and measures, measurers of wood and bark, surveyors of lumber, cullers of staves, a chief fireward or engineer and one or more assistants, a clerk of the market and a pound keeper.
Of the great urban centres, that is established to-day in the river lowlands, reflects the role that water highways have played in the peopling of the country.
The police that guard his house, the local boards which care for the poor, control highways, provide water, all derive their powers from the state.
The latter have the management of county buildings, such as courthouses ar,d prisons, have power to lay out new main highways, to grant licences, and to apportion among the towns and cities the taxation necessary to meet county expenses.
The highways were quiet on the Monday mid-morning, and they drove the three hours faster than she was expecting.
Compared to the spider web of highways in Los Angeles, it looked simple.
And it was for military reasons that from mere cart-tracks they were developed into permanent highways (T.
This was intended to give greater freedom to inland navigation, the rivers being the main highways of trade.
The rivers freeze rapidly; towards November 10th all the streams of the White Sea basin are ice-bound, and so remain for an average of 167 days; those of the Baltic, Black Sea and Caspian basins freeze later, but about December the 10th nearly all the rivers of the country are highways for sledges.
But the years 1887 to 1891 opened many eyes to the fact that the Hebrews lived their life on the great highways of intercourse between Egypt on the one hand, and Babylonia, Assyria and the N.
His method was to travel over the country on foot and barefooted, in extreme poverty, simplicity and austerity, preaching and instructing in highways and villages and towns, and in the castles of the nobility, controverting and discussing with the heretics.
Other remains which bear witness to tlae civilization of, the Mayas are the paved highways and the artificial reservoirs (aguadas) designed for the preservation of water for towns through the long dry season.
The river highways bring down inexhaustible supplies of rice to Moulmein, the chief town of the district, as also of the province of Tenasserim.
The Light Railways Act and the Locomotives on Highways Act were added to the statute book in 1896, and various clauses in the Finance Act effected reforms in respect of the death duties, the land-tax, farmers' income-tax and the beer duty.
- Four principal highways traverse Manchuria.
Campbell, " Aboriginal Savages of Formosa," Ocean Highways (April 1873); H.
Bradley, The Lake District, its Highways and Byeways (London, 1901); Sir John Harwood, History of the Thirlmere Water Scheme (1895); for mountain-climbing, Col.
The only good highways of any considerable length in 1908 were in the two western provinces and in the vicinity of Santiago.
" Prestations " are payments in lieu of services (apart from military service) to the state, such as maintenance of highways, &c. - in effect, purchase of exoneration from forced labour.
This combination of natural and artificial highways of commerce derives an additional importance from the character of the regions thus.
Next to the poor rate came that for highways, and other special rates have been authorized from time to time, as for police, education, public lighting, cemeteries, libraries, sanitary purposes, &c. To distinguish the rate the name of the precepting authority is frequently added or the purpose for which it is levied specified, as county rate, watch rate, &c. The valuation list of a parish is the basis on which the poor rate is levied.
At common law the parish is required to maintain all highways within its bounds; but by special custom the obligation may attach to a particular township or district, and in certain cases the owner of land is bound by the conditions of his holding to keep a highway in repair.
Extensive changes in the English law of highways have been made by various highway acts, viz.
The leading principle of the Highway Act 1835 is to place the highways under the direction of parish surveyors, and to provide for the necessary expenses by a rate levied on the occupiers of land.
It is the duty of the surveyor to keep the highways in repair; and if a highway is out of repair, the surveyor may be summoned before justices and convicted in a penalty not exceedin ordered to complete the repairs within, a limited time.
By the Lights on Vehicles Act 1907, all vehicles on highways in England and Wales must display to the front a white light during the period between one hour after sunset and one hour before sunrise.
The public have a right to pass along a highway freely, safely and conveniently, and any wrongful act or omission which prevents them doing so is a nuisance, for the prevention and abatement of which the highways and other acts contain provisions.
The use of locomotives, motor cars and other vehicles on highways is regulated by acts of 1861-1903.
Formerly under the Turnpike Acts many of the more important highways were placed under the management of boards of commissioners or trustees.
By the Highways and Locomotives Act of 1878 disturnpiked roads became "main roads."
Ordinary highways might be declared to be "main roads," and "main roads" be reduced to the status of ordinary highways.
See Glen, Law Relating to Highways; Pratt, Law of Highways, Main Roads and Bridges.
The Florentines now undertook to open the highways of commerce towards Rome, for their city was already an important industrial and banking centre.
Ibn Khordadhbeh, in the middle of the 9th century, wrote a Book of Roads and Provinces to give an account of the highways, the posting-stations and the revenues of the provinces.
Six hundred years later, the local satraps are represented as having received instructions to build regular highways, and in the 3rd century the massing of troops for an over-sea expedition invested roads with new value.
At the close of the 7th century the emperor Mommu is said to have enacted a law that wealthy persons living near the highways must supply rice to travellers, and in 745 an empress (Koken) directed that a stock of medical necessaries must be kept at the postal stations.
Th third road, the OshOkaidO runs northward from Yedo o h~k 1d~ (now Tokyo) to Aomori on the extreme north of the S U 5 O~ main island, a distance of 445 iii., and several lesser highways give access to other regions.
The debt of the state (especially the contingent debt, secured by sinking funds) has been steadily rising since 1888, and especially since 1896, chiefly owing to the erection of important public buildings, the construction of state highways and metropolitan park roadways, the improvement of Boston harbour, the abolition of grade crossings on railways, and the expenses incurred for the Spanish-American War of 1898.
The general business of the town, other than that which comes before the town meeting, is managed by the selectmen, and they are specially intrusted with the regulation of the highways, sidewalks and commons.
But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, to find the hollows by the puddles after a shower.
How worn and dusty, then, must be the highways of the world, how deep the ruts of tradition and conformity!
The repairing of highways, the upkeep of public buildings,the support of public education, the remuneration of numerous officials connected with the collection of state taxes, the keeping of the cadastre, &c., constitute the principal objects of communal expenditure.
The rivers on the east coast are practically the only highways, the Malays always travelling by boat in preference to walking, but they serve their purpose very indifferently, and their great beauty is their chief claim to distinction.
He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it.