Chabas (1817-1882) especially addressed himself to the reading of the hieratic textt of the New Kingdom.
The former is found chiefly in tales, letters, &c., written in hieratic on papyri of the XIIIth Dynasty to the end of the Middle Kingdom; also in some inscriptions of the XVIIIth Dynasty.
Late Egyptian is seen in hieratic papyri of the XVIIIth to the XXIst Dynasties.
The written nieroglyphs, formed by the scribe with the reed pen on papyrus, eather, wooden tablets, &c., have their outlines more or less abbreyitted, producing eventually the cursive scripts hieratic and demotmc. The written hieroglyphs were employed at all periods, especially or religious texts, Hieratic.A kind of cursive hieroglyphic or hieratic writing is ound even in the 1st Dynasty.
Demotic.Widely varying degrees of cursiveness are at all periods observable in hieratic; but, about the XXVLth Dynasty, which inaugurated a great commercial era, there was something like a definite parting between the uncial hieratic and the most cursive form afterwards known as demotic. The employment of hieratic was thenceforth almost confined to the copying of religious and other traditional texts on papyrus, while demotic was used not only for all business but also for writing literary and even religious texts in the popular language.
Hieroglyphic is normally written from right youth to left, the signs facing to the commencement of the line; hieratic and demotic follow the same direction.
The table on next page shows them in their more cor rect position, in order to display more clearly their relation to the hieratic and demotic equivalents.
Demotic), secondly the hieratic employed by the sacred scribes, and finally the hieroevil, worthless- glyphic (Strom.
The only native work on the writing that has come to light as yet is a fragmentary papyrus of Roman date which has a table in parallel bite, &c. columns of hieroglyphic signs, with their hieratic equivalents and words written in hieratic de d ~ scribing them or giving their values or mean- woo ree ings.
The list appears to have comprised about 460 signs, including most of those that occur commonly in hieratic. They are to some (I) sun extent classified.
Demotic. Hieratic. Hi eni, who..
Her hieratic and most general form was still lioness-headed, but a popular form, especially in bronze, was a cat-headed women, often holding in her right hand a lion aegis, i.e.
So intensely aristocratic (hence his nickname 6 AoXoiSopos, "he who rails at the people") was his temperament that he declined to exercise the regal-hieratic office of 1 3avLAeus which was hereditary in his family, and presented it to his brother.
Moreover, we possess enumerations of towns in the geographical lists of the temple of Karnak and in a hieratic papyrus dating about 200 years after Tethmosis III.
Besides the ritual and religious rolls, there are the hieratic, civil and literary documents, and the demotic and enchorial papyri, relating generally to sales of property.
According to this view the alphabet was borrowed by the Phoenicians from the cursive (hieratic) form of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
Most of them have been indifferently restored by local artists, who follow mechanically a kind of hieratic tradition, the principles of which are embodied in a work of iconography by the monk Dionysius, said to have been a pupil of Panselinos.
The largest of all, however, was the macrocollon, probably of good quality and equal to the hieratic, and a cubit or nearly 18 in.