Charles Augustus Briggs, tried for heresy for his inaugural address in 1891 as professor of biblical theology at Union Seminary (in which he attacked the inerrancy of the Bible, held the composite character of the Hexateuch and of the Book of Isaiah and taught that sanctification is not complete at death), was acquitted by the presbytery of New York, but was declared guilty and was suspended from its ministry by the General Assembly of 1893.
Kuenen, Hexateuch, §§ 3 n.
In the exile, but probably after 50o B.C., an important section of the Hexateuch, usually called the Priest's Code (P), was drawn up. At various times in the same century are to be placed the book of Job, the post-exilic parts of Isaiah, the books of Joel, Jonah, Malachi and the Song of Songs.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
The Hexateuch (vol.
In 1886 his volume on the Hexateuch was published in England.
Kuenen was also the author of many articles, papers and reviews; a series on the Hexateuch, which appeared in the Theologisch Tijdschrift, of which in 1866 he became joint editor, is one of the finest products of modern criticism.
Wellhausen made his name famous by his critical investigations into Old Testament history and the composition of the Hexateuch, the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters.
Xiv.; Addis, Documents of the Hexateuch, ii.
Pp. 208-213; Carpenter and HarfordBattersby, The Hexateuch, i.
The remaining poems are usually regarded as later additions; thus the Oxford Hexateuch on Num.
For the analysis into earlier documents, see also the Oxford Hexateuch, Estlin Carpenter and Harford-Battersby.
Sometimes, for instance, the excerpts from the older documents form long and complete narratives; in other cases (as in the account of the Flood) they consist of a number of short passages, taken alternately from two older narratives, and dovetailed together to make a continuous story; in the books of Judges and Kings the compiler has fitted together a series of older narratives in a framework supplied by himself; the Pentateuch and book of Joshua (which form a literary whole, and are now often spoken of together as the Hexateuch) have passed through more stages than the books just mentioned, and their literary structure is more complex.
The Hexateuch (Gen.
The Priestly sections of the Hexateuch (known as " P ") remain still to be considered.
The style of " P " is strongly marked - as strongly marked, in fact, as (in a different way) that of Deuteronomy is; numerous expressions not found elsewhere in the Hexateuch occur in it repeatedly.
Xxvi.), with certain very marked characteristics (from one of which it has received the name of the " Law of Holiness "), which have been combined with elements belonging to, or conceived in the spirit of, the main body of " P. " Not long after " P " was completed, probably in the 5th century B.C., the whole, consisting of " JE " and Deuteronomy, was combined with it; and the existing Hexateuch was thus produced.
In literary criticism its fundamental thesis, stated independently of Vatke and in the same year by George in Die dlteren jiidischen Feste, and in a measure anticipated by Reuss, who in 1832 was maintaining in his academical lectures that the prophets were older than the Law and the Psalms more recent than both, is that the chronological order of the three main sources of the Hexateuch is (1) the prophetic narratives (JE), (2) Deuteronomy, (3) the Priestly Code (P), the last being post-exilic. This entirely reversed the prevailing view that P with its exact details and developed ceremonial and sacerdotal system was at once the earliest portion of the Pentateuch and the Grundschrift or foundation of the whole - a view that was maintained by Ewald and, though with very important modifications, to the last by A.
On examination, the authors of anticritica are generally found to disown, tacitly or openly, the first of these alternatives; for example, Prof. Sayce, who frequently takes the field against the " higher criticism," and denies, without, however, disproving, the validity of the literary analysis of the Hexateuch, nevertheless himself asserts that " no one can study the Pentateuch.
12, see the Oxford Hexateuch, i.
A Theological Question for the Times (1889); The Authority of the Holy Scripture (1891); The Bible, the Church and the Reason (1892); The Higher Criticism of the Hexateuch (1893); The Messiah of the Gospels (1894) The Messiah of the Apostles (1894); New Light on the Life of Jesus (1904); The Ethical Teaching of Jesus (1904); A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Book of Psalms (2 vols., 1906-1907), in which he was assisted by his daughter; and The Virgin Birth of Our Lord (1909).
The book of Exodus, however, like the other books of the Hexateuch, is a composite work which has passed, so to speak, through many editions; hence the order of events given above cannot lay claim to any higher authority than that of the latest editor.
10-26, which may be described as the oldest legal code of the Hexateuch, is almost entirely religious.
10-26 originally stood in a different connexion, and was misplaced at some stage in the redaction of the Hexateuch, does not help us, since it would still have to be admitted that the editor to whom we owed the present form of the chapter identified this little code of religious observances with the Ten Words.
That the pre-Deuteronomic sources are to be identified with the Judaean (J, or Yahwist) and Ephraimite (E, or Elohist) strands of the Hexateuch is, however, not certain.
They appear to owe their position to the latest redactor (akin to the latest stratum in the Hexateuch) who has heavily worked over xix.- xxi., and put the book into its present form by the addition of i.-ii.
B.C.) they are presumably of very great antiquity, but if they belong to the sources J and E of the Hexateuch (at least some four or five centuries later) their value is seriously weakened.
The book of Leviticus presents a marked contrast to the two preceding books of the Hexateuch in that it is derived from one document only, viz.
The Priestly Code (P), and contains no trace of the other documents from which the Hexateuch has been compiled.
37-41 (on fringes), the other passages of the Hexateuch which have been attributed to H do not furnish sufficient evidence to justify us in assigning them to that collection.
Review (1896); Carpenter, Composition of the Hexateuch (1902).
On the critical questions arising from the Pentateuch or Hexateuch, see Bible and the articles on the several books.