Homer leaves the question unanswered; Hesiod (cf.
But this genealogy, though it is attributed to Hesiod, is apparently post-Homeric; and it is clear that the Ionian name had independent and varied uses and meanings in very early times.
EREBUS, in Greek mythology, son (according to Hesiod, Theog.
His name does not occur in Homer or Hesiod, but he was known in the time of Ibycus (c. 530 B.C.), and Pindar (522-442 B.C.) speaks of him as " the father of songs."
These poems were recited at rhapsodic contests together with those of Homer and Hesiod, and Orphic hymns were used in the Eleusinian mysteries.'
Creuzer's first and most famous work was his Symbolik and Mythologie der alten V dlker, besonders der Griechen (1810-1812), in which he maintained that the mythology of Homer and Hesiod came from an Eastern source through the Pelasgians, and was the remains of the symbolism of an ancient revelation.
This work was vigorously attacked by Hermann in his Briefen fiber Homer and Hesiod, and in his letter, addressed to Creuzer, Ober das Wesen and die Behandlung der Mythologie; by J.
In Hesiod (W.
According to Hesiod (Theogony, 215) they were the daughters of Erebus and Night; in later accounts, of Atlas and Hesperis, or of Phorcys and Ceto (schol.
It is as a corn-goddess that Demeter appears in Homer and Hesiod, and numerous epithets from various sources (see Bruchmann, Epitheta Deorum, supplement to Roscher's Lexikon, i.
Scanty information on its agriculture is to be derived from the Works and Days of Hesiod (about the 8th century B.C.), the Oeconomicus of Xenophon (4th century B.C.), the History of Plants and the Origin of Plants of Theophrastus (4th century B.C.).
Besides early work on Aristophanes, Pindar, and Sappho, whose character he vindicated, he edited Alcman (1815), Hipponax (1817), Theognis (1826) and the Theogony of Hesiod (1865), and published a Sylloge epigrammatum Graecorum (Bonn, 1828).
(b) One of the primary meanings of csai,ucav is that of genius or familiar, tutelary spirit; according to Hesiod the men of the golden race became after death guardians or watchers over mortals.
Although mentioned in Hesiod and the Odyssey, he is rather a post-Homeric hero.
And ix.), but they are mentioned by Hesiod (Works and Days, 168) and Pindar (01.
According to Hesiod (Theog.
Dio Chrysostom, Plutarch's contemporary, declares that neither Homer nor Hesiod sang of the chariot and horses of Zeus so worthily as Zoroaster, of whom the Persians tell that, out of love to wisdom and righteousness, he withdrew himself from men, and lived in solitude upon a mountain.
Hephaestus (or Prometheus) subsequently split open his head with a hatchet, and Athena sprang forth fully armed, uttering a loud shout of victory (Hesiod, Theogony, 886; Pindar, Olympia, vii.
As Such she appears in Homer and Hesiod and in post-Homeric legend as the slayer of the Gorgon and taking part in the battle of the giants.
Hesiod has three Fates (Moipac), daughters of Night, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos.
5, speaks of "mare-milkers," and Hesiod, ap. Strabo vii.
Hesiod, Works and Days, 41; Pliny, Nat.
499, and elsewhere) and in Hesiod (Works and Days, 338), there is some uncertainty whether they were incense offerings at all, and if so, whether they were ever offered alone, and not always in conjunction with animal sacrifices.
In Hesiod it is chiefly confined to those who fought before Troy and Thebes; in view of their supposed divine origin, he calls them demi-gods (µLO€ot).
But neither in Homer nor in Hesiod is there any trace of the idea that the heroes after death had any power for good or evil over the lives of those who survived them; and consequently, no cult.
Greek cosmogonies (the orientalism of which is clear) will be found in Hesiod, Theog.
14, ix, to, II, 17; Hesiod, Shield, 1-56; Pindar, Pythia, ix.
LETHE (" Oblivion"), in Greek mythology, the daughter of Eris (Hesiod, Theog.
In Hesiod (Theogony, 1013) he is the son of Odysseus and Circe, and ruler of the Tyrsenians; in Virgil, the son of Faunus and the nymph Marica, a national genealogy being substituted for the Hesiodic, which probably originated from a Greek source.
He is acquainted with the poems of the epic cycle, the Cypria, the Epigoni, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis, Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop, Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and Pindar.
Meteorological phenomena seated more directly in the atmosphere obtained early recognition; thus Hesiod, in his Works and Days, speculated on the origin of winds, ascribing them to the heating effects of the sun on the air.
Personified, Oceanus is in Hesiod (Theog.
PANDORA (the "All-giving") in Greek mythology, according to Hesiod (Theog.
In what appears to be a very early development of her character, Aphrodite also was a war goddess, known under the name of Areia; and in Thebes, the most important seat of the worship of Ares, she is his wife, and bears him Eros and Anteros, Deimos and Phobos, and Harmonia, wife of Cadmus, the founder of the city (Hesiod, Theog.
He also edited Hesiod and Pindar, Euripides and Aristophanes, besides composing brief introductions to the several plays, parts of which are still extant.
The Alexandrian canon of the Greek classics, which probably had its origin in the lists drawn up by Callimachus, Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus, included the following authors: Epic poets (5): Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, Panyasis, Antimachus.
In the time of Photius the poets usually studied at school were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar; certain select plays of Aeschylus (Prometheus, Septem and Persae), Sophocles (Ajax, Electra and Oedipus Tyrannus), and Euripides (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenissae, and, next to these, Alcestis, Andromache, Hippolytus, Medea, Rhesus, Troades,) also Aristophanes (beginning with the Plutus), Theocritus, Lycophron, and Dionysius Periegetes.
The Greek authors were Homer, Hesiod, Pindar and the dramatists, with Herodotus, Xenophon and Plato, Isocrates and Demosthenes, Plutarch and Arrian.
The text-books to be used at Harrow in 1590 included Hesiod and some of the Greek orators and historians.
In the university of Paris, which was originally opposed to this innovation, the statutes of 1598 prescribed the study of Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Theocritus, Plato, Demosthenes and Isocrates (as well as the principal Latin classics), and required the production of three exercises in Greek or Latin in each week.
Isocrates, Plato, Thucydides, Homer, Hesiod, Pindar, Gregory of Nazianzus, Basil and Chrysostom.
Lastly, his Mouseion (a word of doubtful meaning) contained the narrative of the contest between Homer and Hesiod, two fragments of which are found in the 'Agon `Omerou Kai `Esiodou, the work of a grammarian in the time of Hadrian.
Hesiod, Theogony, 214; Lucian, Hermotimus, 20, and especially Deorum Concilium; Philostratus, Epistolae, 37.
Arrived in heaven, Pegasus served Zeus, fetching for him his thunder and lightning (Hesiod, Theog.
In Hesiod she was the last of the nine sisters, but yet enjoyed a supremacy over the others.
The gigantic enemies were defeated and consigned to Tartarus, at the gates of which the three brothers were placed (Hesiod, Theog.
The Greek myth (Hesiod, Works and Days, 90) alleged that mortals lived "without ill diseases that give death to men" till the cover was lifted from the box of Pandora.
32) states that they were mentioned in Hesiod and in the Epigoni, an epic of the Theban cycle.
The Greek word is used by Homer as a personal epithet, and by Hesiod for the hard metal in armour, while Theophrastus applies it to the hardest crystal.