Germany 36,066 Austria-Hungary,including Bosnia and Herzegovina 25,853 GreatBritain and Ireland 23,108 France 29,717 EuropeanRussia, includ ing Finland 36,280 Italy..
His reputation as a consistent moderating influence in European policy and one of the chief guarantors of European peace was indeed rudely shaken in October 1908, the year in which he celebrated his ixty years jubilee as emperor, by the issue of the imperial Iscript annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg ominions, in violation of the terms of the treaty of Berlin.
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, or Bosnia-Herzegovina, two provinces formerly included in European Turkey, which now, together with Dalmatia, form the southernmost territories of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
The name Herzegovina is also written Hertzegovina, Hertsegovina or, in Croatian, Hercegovina.
Opposite to the promontory of Sabbioncello, and at the entrance to the Bocche di Cattaro, the frontier of Herzegovina comes down to the Adriatic; but these two strips of coast do not contain any good harbour, and extend only for a total distance of 141 m.
The zone of highlands throughout Bosnia and Herzegovina reaches a mean altitude of 1500 ft., while summits of more than 4000 ft.
Valuable salt is obtained from the pits at Dolnja Tuzla, and the southern part of Herzegovina yields asphalt and lignite.
Herzegovina has more affinity to the Dalmatian mountains, oppressively hot in summer, when the mercury often rises beyond 110° Fahr.
In 1893 the bones of a cave-bear (Ursus spelaeus) were taken from a cavern of the Bjelasnica range, in Herzegovina, a discovery without parallel in the Balkan Peninsula.
In Herzegovina, although many of the high mountain tarns are unproductive, the eel-fisheries of the Narenta are of considerable value.
"Bosnia begins with the forest," says a native proverb, "Herzegovina with the rock"; and this account is, broadly speaking, accurate, although the Bosnian Karst is as bare as that of Herzegovina.
In 1895, according to the agricultural survey, the surface of Bosnia and Herzegovina was laid out as follows: Acres.
Apart from the arid wastes of the Karst, the soil is well adapted for the growing of cereals, especially Indian corn; olives, vines, mulberries, figs, pomegranates, melons, oranges, lemons, rice and tobacco flourish in Herzegovina and the more sheltered portions of Bosnia.
The zadruga, or household community, more common in Servia (q.v.), survives to a small extent in Bosnia and Herzegovina; but, as a rule, the tenure of land resembles, the system called metayage.
In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina were in 1882 included in the customs and commercial system of AustriaHungary, to the extinction of all intermediate imposts.
It then pierces through the mountains of northern Herzegovina, traverses the Narenta valley, and runs almost parallel with the coast to Trebinje, Ragusa and the Bocche di Cattaro.
Serajevo, with 41,543 inhabitants in 1895, is the capital of the combined provinces, and other important places are Mostar (17,010), the capital of Herzegovina, Banjaluka (14,812), Dolnja Tuzla (11,034), Travnik (6626), Livno (5273), Visoko(5000), Foca (4217), Jajce (3929) and Trebinje (2966).
In some parts of Herzegovina the dress, manners and physical type of the peasantry are akin to those of Montenegro.
In general, the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina are sober and thrifty, subsisting chiefly on Indian corn, dried meat, milk and vegetables.
Up to 1900 no traces of palaeolithic man had been discovered in Bosnia or Herzegovina; but many later prehistoric remains are preserved in Serajevo museum.
The territory now called Herzegovina was also subject to various foreign powers.
In 1448; and from this title is derived the name Herzegovina, or "the Duchy."
Herzegovina, where Vukcic offered a desperate resistance, held out until 1483; but apart from the heroic defence of Jajce, the efforts of the Bosnians were feeble and inglorious, many of the Bogomils joining the enemy.
Thus, in 1570, Ali Pasha, a native of Herzegovina, became grand vizier; and he was succeeded by the distinguished soldier and statesman, Mahomet Beg Sokolovic, a Bosnian.
The Moslems of Herzegovina, under Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic, remained loyal to the Porte, but in Bosnia Hussein Aga encountered little resistance.
In Herzegovina, Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovic reaped the reward of his fidelity.
The treaties of Carlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718) deprived the Turks of all the Primorje, or littoral of Herzegovina, except the narrow enclaves of Klek and Suttorina, left to sunder the Ragusan dominions from those of Venice.
Evans, Through Bosnia and Herzegovina on Foot (London, 1876); and W.
Stillman, Herzegovina and the Late Uprising (London, 1877).
These charges are not wholly unfounded; but the chief social and political evils in Bosnia and Herzegovina may be traced to historical causes operative long before the Austro-Hungarian occupation, and above all to the political ambition of the rival churches.
It was no doubt natural that Austrian statesmen should wish to end the anomalous situation created by the treaty of Berlin, by incorporating Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Dual Monarchy.
Its decision, of ter being communicated to the sovereigns of the powers signatory to the treaty of Berlin, in a series of autograph letters from the emperor Francis Joseph, was made known to Bosnia and Herzegovina in an imperial rescript published on the 7th of October 1908.
Asboth, An Official Tour through Bosnia and Herzegovina (London, 1890) is.
Nikasinovic, Bosnien and die Herzegovina enter der Verwaltung der osterreich-ungarischen Monarchie (Berlin, 1901, &c.), and M.
Katzer, Geologischer Fiihrer durch Bosnien and Herzegovina (Serajevo, 1903); P. Ballif, Wasserbauten in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1896).
Agriculture and Commerce: annual British consular reports, and the official Ergebnisse der Viehzahlungen (1879 and 1895), and Landwirtschaft in Bosnien and Herzegovina (1899).
Munro, Through Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia (Edinburgh, 1900); A.
Sporadic insurrections had already broken out among the Bosnian Christians, and on the 1st of July 1875 the villagers of Nevesinje, which gives its name to a mountain neolithische Station von Butmir (Vienna 1895-1898); P. Ballif, Romische Strassen in Bosnien and Herzegovina (Vienna, 1893, &c.).
On the receipts side of this budget were comprised the Austrian indemnity for the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (£T2,50o,000), cash and securities belonging to the deposed sultan (£TI,600,000), sale of old guns (£T300,000), sale of lands and other property recovered from civil list encroachments (£T908,000), and finally the unexpected balance of the proceeds of the 1908 loan (£T6J5,000), the whole forming an aggregate total of £T5,963,000.
External influences and latent fanaticism were active; a serious insurrection broke out in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1875, and the efforts to quell it almost exhausted Turkey's resources; the example spread to Bulgaria, where abortive outbreaks in September 1875 and May 1876 led to those cruel measures of repression which were known as " the Bulgarian atrocities," 3 Mussulman public feeling was inflamed, and an attempt at Salonica to induce a Christian girl who had embraced Islam to return to her faith caused the murder of two foreign consuls by a fanatical mob.
A regenerated Ottoman Empire might in time be strong enough to demand the evacuation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, g and to maintain or extend the nominal suzerainty over Bulgaria which the sultan had exercised since 1878.
Accordingly, at the beginning of October 1908, the emperor Francis Joseph informed the powers signatory to the treaty of Berlin that the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Dual Monarchy had become necessary, and this decision was formally announced in an imperial rescript dated the 7th of October.
The Balkan crisis threw this question into the background during the winter; but, with the settlement of the international questions raised by the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, it once more came to the front.
This procrastinating policy played into the hands of the extremists; for supplies had not been voted, and the question of the credits for the expenditure incurred in connexion with the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, increasingly urgent, placed a powerful weapon in the hands of the Magyars, and made it certain that in the autumn the crisis would assume an even more acute form.
The Serbian army was also allowed to occupy the Backa, Syrmia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but no territory farther west: and for a moment it seemed as though an attempt was being made to leave the Croats and Slovenes to their fate and to form an aggrandized Serbia on the lines advocated by Pasic and Petrograd in the summer of 1915.
Schmidt, Bosnien-Herzegovina (1914).
Unpleasant retreats had to be effected twice, before the Kaiser "in shining armour:" the first time after Aehrenthal's annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, the second after the blocking of the Serbian advance towards the Adriatic. Benckendorff was one of those who knew how to abide his time, and he did not lose heart.
He continued the policy of improving relations with Austria, which did not contribute to his popularity; after the annexation of Bosnia and the Herzegovina his imprudently worded speech at Carate created the illusion that Italy was to be compensated, perhaps by the cession of the Trentino, and the disappointment when nothing of the kind materialized greatly weakened his prestige.
This attempt also failed; for the Germans were numerically too weak, ' For Hungary, as the other constitutional half of the old AustroHungarian Monarchy, see the separate article under that heading; also Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the articles on the different " succession states " which were formed on the break-up of the monarchy in 1918.
When the Eastern question was raised in 1875 by the insurrection of Herzegovina, Alexander Ii.