The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i.
No date is assigned by Herodotus for this "old feud"; recent writers, e.g.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
All the incidents subsequent to the appeal of Athens to Sparta are expressly referred by Herodotus to the interval between the sending of the heralds in 491 B.C. and the invasion of Datis and Artaphernes in 490 B.C. (cf.
There are difficulties in this story, of which the following are the principal: - (i.) Herodotus nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between the two states before 481 B.C., nor does he distinguish between different wars during this period.
(iv.) There is an incidental indication of time, which points to the period after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by Herodotus to the year before Marathon, viz.
Is probable, therefore, that Herodotus is in error both in tracing back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and Aegina (c. 507) and in putting the episode of Nicodromus before Marathon.
Herodotus had no Athenian victories to record after the initial success, and the fact that Themistocles was able to carry his proposal to devote the surplus funds of the state to the building of so large a fleet seems to imply that the Athenians were themselves convinced that a supreme effort was necessary.
In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf.
See also Macan, Herodotus iv.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
17, 120) and Herodotus (v.
78; Herodotus i.
Herodotus mentions the temple dedicated to "Perseus" and asserts that Chemmis was remarkable for the celebration of games in honour of that hero, after the manner of the Greeks, at which prizes were given; as a matter of fact some representations are known of Nubians and people of Puoni (Somalic coast) clambering up poles before the god Min.
Herodotus perhaps confused Coptos with Chemmis.
According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first of all the Greeks to undertake distant voyages, and made known the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain.
Init.) between the'Os/3poi of, say, Herodotus and the language of Iguviuin, of which we may now offer some description, using the term Umbrian strictly in this sense.
TRIBALLI, in ancient geography, a Thracian people whose earliest home was near the junction of the Angrus and Brongus (the east and west Morava), and included towards the south "the Triballian plain" (Herodotus iv.
Herodotus (430 B.C.) had dimly heard of them.
- Herodotus iii.
The close analogy between Pythagoreanism and Orphism has been recognized from Herodotus (ii.
The Persians of Cyrus (see Persia: Ancient History) were a vigorous race of husbandmen, living in' a healthy climate, accustomed to hardship, brave and upright; many stories in Herodotus (especially ix.
H e rodotus, equally oblivious of the sphere, criticized and Herodotus rid i culed the circular outline of the oekumene, which he knew to be longer from east to west than it was broad from north to south.
Beyond the limits of his personal travels Herodotus applied the characteristically Greek theory of symmetry to complete, in the unknown, outlines The ides of lands and rivers analogous to those which had been of symexplored.
Myres, " An Attempt to reconstruct the Maps used by Herodotus," Geographical Journal, viii.
It had its opponents, however, for Herodotus showed that sea-basins existed cut off from the ocean, and it is still a matter of controversy how far the prePtolemaic geographers believed in a water-connexion between the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
Herodotus (himself a notable traveller in the 5th century B.C.) relates that the Egyptian king Necho of the XXVIth Dynasty (c. 600 B.C.) built a fleet on the Red Sea, and confided it to Phoenician sailors with the orders to sail southward and return to Egypt by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean sea.
According to the tradition, which Herodotus quotes sceptically, this was accomplished; but the story is too vague to be accepted as more than a possibility.
DEIOCES (Onc6vis), according to Herodotus (i.
The narration of Herodotus is only a popular tradition which derives the origin of kingship from its judicial functions, considered as its principal and most beneficent aspect.
We know from the Assyrian inscriptions that just at the time which Herodotus assigns to Deioces the Medes were divided into numerous small principalities and subjected to the great Assyrian conquerors.
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.
Herodotus describes the festival of Bubastis, which was attended by thousands from all parts of Egypt and was a very riotous affair; it has its modern equivalent in the Moslem festival of the sheikh Said el Badawi at Tanta.
Naville, Bubastis, and Festival Hall of Osorkon II.; Herodotus ii.
So important were they, that the whole of Susiana was sometimes called Cissia after them, as by Herodotus (iii.
Herodotus also came in for a considerable share of his regard, but more, apparently, for recreation than for work.
Boats built in Syrian ports were placed on the Euphrates by Sennacherib and Alexander, and Herodotus states (i.
Rawlinson, Herodotus, bk.
Of the Scythia of Herodotus (iv.
According to Herodotus (ii.
By the euhemeristic Hellespontine Greeks Herodotus was told that Zalmoxis was really a man, formerly a slave of Pythagoras at Samos, who, having obtained his freedom and amassed great wealth, returned to Thrace, and instructed his fellow-tribesmen in the doctrines of Pythagoras and the arts of civilization.
Herodotus, who declines to commit himself as to the existence of Zalmoxis, expresses the opinion that in any case he must have lived long before the time of Pythagoras.
It included, besides Hearne's Ductor historicus and the successive volumes of the Universal History, which was then in course of publication, Littlebury's Herodotus, Spelman's Xenophon, Gordon's Tacitus, an anonymous translation of Procopius; "many crude lumps of Speed, Rapin, Mezeray, Davila, Machiavel, Father Paul, Bower, &c., were hastily gulped.
- Last year and this I read St John's Gospel, with part of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, the Iliad, and Herodotus; but, upon the whole, I rather neglected my Greek."
PHARAOH (Par`oh), the Hebraized title of the king of Egypt, in Egyptian Per-`o; Pheron in Herodotus represents the same.
They lived in comparative quietude; although Herodotus knows the Palestinian coast he does not mention the Jews.