The earliest explicit Greek account of the Ionians is given in the 5th century by Herodotus (i.
Rawlinson, Herodotus, bk.
Of the Scythia of Herodotus (iv.
According to Herodotus (ii.
PHARAOH (Par`oh), the Hebraized title of the king of Egypt, in Egyptian Per-`o; Pheron in Herodotus represents the same.
They lived in comparative quietude; although Herodotus knows the Palestinian coast he does not mention the Jews.
The Pan-Ionian sanctuary of Poseidon on the Asiatic promontory of Mycale was regarded as perpetuating a cult from Peloponnesian Achaea, and the league of twelve cities which maintained it, as imitated from an Achaean dodecapolis, and as claiming (absurdly, according to Herodotus i.
No date is assigned by Herodotus for this "old feud"; recent writers, e.g.
The account which Herodotus gives of the hostilities between the two states in the early years of the 5th century B.C. is to the following effect.
It included, besides Hearne's Ductor historicus and the successive volumes of the Universal History, which was then in course of publication, Littlebury's Herodotus, Spelman's Xenophon, Gordon's Tacitus, an anonymous translation of Procopius; "many crude lumps of Speed, Rapin, Mezeray, Davila, Machiavel, Father Paul, Bower, &c., were hastily gulped.
- Last year and this I read St John's Gospel, with part of Xenophon's Cyropaedia, the Iliad, and Herodotus; but, upon the whole, I rather neglected my Greek."
The poetic imagery in which the prophets clothed the doom of Babylon, like the romantic account of Herodotus (i.
Herodotus states that there were four distinct dialects in Asiatic Ionia itself (i.
3, 1890, p. 479 ff.) follow Herodotus with qualifications.
That recorded by Herodotus i.
Strabo p. 428; Herodotus vii.
His policy in encouraging the drama has already been mentioned: among his friends he could count three of the greatest Greek writers - the poet Sophocles and the historians Herodotus and Thucydides.
234), and the neighbourhood of the sanctuary was called Pelasgia (Herodotus ii.
The meaning of the term "Pelasgian" is, however, too obscure to furnish a basis for ethnographical speculation; in the time of Herodotus it may have already come to denote a period rather than a race.
Aventinus, who has been called the "Bavarian Herodotus," wrote other books of minor importance, and a complete edition of his works was published at Munich (188'- 1886).
Aegina, according to Herodotus (v.
The history of these relations, as recorded by Herodotus (v.
There are difficulties in this story, of which the following are the principal: - (i.) Herodotus nowhere states or implies that peace was concluded between the two states before 481 B.C., nor does he distinguish between different wars during this period.
(iv.) There is an incidental indication of time, which points to the period after Marathon as the true date for the events which are referred by Herodotus to the year before Marathon, viz.
Is probable, therefore, that Herodotus is in error both in tracing back the beginning of hostilities to an alliance between Thebes and Aegina (c. 507) and in putting the episode of Nicodromus before Marathon.
In view of these considerations it becomes difficult to credit the number of the vessels that is assigned to them by Herodotus (30 as against 180 Athenian vessels, cf.
See also Macan, Herodotus iv.
Brother of Darius I., and, according to Herodotus, the trusted adviser of his nephew Xerxes.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
17, 120) and Herodotus (v.
78; Herodotus i.
According to Herodotus (iv.
By the euhemeristic Hellespontine Greeks Herodotus was told that Zalmoxis was really a man, formerly a slave of Pythagoras at Samos, who, having obtained his freedom and amassed great wealth, returned to Thrace, and instructed his fellow-tribesmen in the doctrines of Pythagoras and the arts of civilization.
Herodotus, who declines to commit himself as to the existence of Zalmoxis, expresses the opinion that in any case he must have lived long before the time of Pythagoras.
C. 17), though from Thucydides and Herodotus we gather that they were distinct - e.g.
Herodotus describes Hegesistratus as a bastard, and Thucydides says that Thessalus was legitimate.
Boats built in Syrian ports were placed on the Euphrates by Sennacherib and Alexander, and Herodotus states (i.
Herodotus also came in for a considerable share of his regard, but more, apparently, for recreation than for work.
So important were they, that the whole of Susiana was sometimes called Cissia after them, as by Herodotus (iii.
Bubastis, capital of the 19th nome of Lower Egypt, is now represented by a great mound of ruins called Tell Basta, near Zagazig, including the site of a large temple (described by Herodotus) strewn with blocks of granite.