He was the father of Herod the Great, whose family thus was Idumaean in origin.
Of the Temple and probably formed the basis of the citadel built by Simon Maccabaeus, which again was succeeded by the fortress of Antonia, constructed by Herod the Great, and one of the most important positions at the time of the siege by Titus.
At the corner stood the residence of the Babylonian governor, near the site upon which King Herod afterwards built his magnificent palace.
The Asmonean dynasty lasted a few years longer, but finally came to an end when Herod the Great, with the aid of the Romans, took possession of Jerusalem and became the first king of the Idumaean dynasty.
Herod again raised the city to the position of an important capital, restoring the fortifications, and rebuilding the Temple from its foundations.
At some period between the time of the Maccabees and of Herod, a second or outer wall had been built outside and north of the first wall, but it is not possible to fix an accurate date to this line of defence, as the references to it in Josephus are obscure.
Herod adorned the town with other buildings and constructed a theatre and gymnasium.
He doubled the area of the enclosure round the Temple, and there can be little doubt that a great part of the walls of the Haram area date from the time of Herod, while probably the tower of David, which still exists near the Jaffa Gate, is on the same foundation as one of the towers adjoining his palace.
Archelaus, Herod's successor, had far less authority than Herod, and the real power of government at Jerusalem was assumed by the Roman procurators, in the time of one of whom, Pontius Pilate, Jesus Christ was condemned to death and crucified outside Jerusalem.
Herod Agrippa, who succeeded to the kingdom, built a third or outer wall on the north side of Jerusalem in order to enclose and defend the buildings which had gradually been constructed outside the old fortifications.
The wall of Herod Agrippa was planned on a grand scale, but its execution was stopped by the Romans, so that it was not completed at the time of the siege of Jerusalem by Titus.
Before Herod its inhabitants ran away (ib.
It was rebuilt by Pompey, and restored by Aulus Gabinius: but it was to Herod that it owed much of its later glory.
Herod the Great.
- After the departure of Caesar, Antipater warned the adherents of Hyrcanus against taking part in any revolutionary attempts, and his son Herod, who, in spite of his youth, had been appointed governor of Galilee, dealt summarily with Hezekiah, the robber captain who was overrunning the adjacent part of Syria.
Complaint was made to Hyrcanus that Herod had violated the law which prohibited the execution of even an evil man, unless he had been first condemned to death by the Sanhedrin.
So Herod was summoned to stand his trial.
Herod put his own profit above the Law, acting after his kind, and he also was God's instrument.
It is to be remembered that, in this and all narratives of the life of Herod, Josephus was dependent upon the history of Herod's client, Nicolaus of Damascus, and was himself a supporter of law and order.
When Cassius demanded a tribute of 700 talents from Palestine, Antipater set Herod, Phasael and this Malichus, his enemy, to collect it.
Herod thought it imprudent to secure the favour of Rome by the sufferings of others.
So Herod and Phasael continued to be virtually kings of the Jews: Antony's court required large remittances and Palestine was not exempt.
Hyrcanus and Phasael were trapped: Herod fled by way of Egypt to Rome.
The senate of Rome under the influence of Antony and Octavian ratified the claims of Herod, and after some delay lent him the armed force necessary to make them good.
This development of Judaism was eminently to the mind of the rulers; and Herod did much to encourage it.
Herod had put down Jewish rebels and Herod appointed the high priests.
So long as Herod lived there was no insurrection.
In return for her kindness, being entrusted with foreknowledge by the visitation of God, they prophesied that God had decreed an end of rule for Herod and his line and that the sovereignty devolved upon her and Pheroras and their children.
Herod was stricken with an incurable disease.
A report that Herod was dead co-operated with their exhortations to send the iconoclasts to their appointed work.
But Herod was not dead yet, and the instigators and the agents of this sacrilege were burned alive.
On the death of Herod in 4 B.C. Archelaus kept open house for mourners as the Jewish custom, which reduced many Jews to beggary, prescribed.
Where Augustus had a temple built by Herod the Great.
So the Jews of Judaea obtained the settlement for which they had pleaded at the death of Herod; and some of them beg2 n to regret it at once.
In Galilee the Jews predominated over the heathen and their ruler Herod Antipas had some sort of claim upon their allegiance.
He conciliated his subjects by his deference to the observances of Judaism, and - the case is probably typical of his policy - he joined in protesting, when Pilate set up a votive shield in the palace of Herod within the sacred city.
But the death of Sejanus in 31 set Tiberius free from prejudice against the Jews; and, when Pilate put up the votive shields in Herod's palace at Jerusalem, the four sons of Herod came forward in defence of Jewish principles and he was ordered to remove them.
At the passover of 36 Vitellius came to Jerusalem and pacified the Jews by two concessions: he remitted the taxes on fruit sold in the city, and he restored to their custody the high priest's vestments, which Herod Archelaus and the Romans had kept in the tower Antonia.
The vestments had been stored there since the time of the first high priest named Hyrcanus, and Herod had taken them over along with the tower, thinking that his possession of them would deter the Jews from rebellion against his rule.
Agrippa, the grandson of Herod the Great, was an avowed partisan of the new emperor and had paid penalty for a premature avowal of his preference.
King over all the territories of Herod the Great.
The emperor granted the petition, which indeed the procurator had permitted them to make, and further transferred the nomination of the high priest and the supervision of the temple from the procurator to Agrippa's brother, Herod of Chalcis.
The Jews claimed that the city was theirs, because King Herod had founded it.
In this war he was killed (Herod.) or mortally wounded (Ctesias).
HEROD AGRIPPA, I.
44), king of Judea, the son of Aristobulus and Berenice, and grandson of Herod the Great, was born about io B.C. His original name was Marcus Julius Agrippa.
Josephus informs us that, after the murder of his father, Herod the Great sent him to Rome to the court of Tiberius, who conceived a great affection for him, and placed him near his son Drusus, whose favour he very soon won.
After a brief seclusion, Herod the Tetrarch, his uncle, who had married Herodias, his sister, made him Agoranomos (Overseer of Markets) of Tiberias, and presented him with a large sum of money; but his uncle being unwilling to continue his support, Agrippa left Judea for Antioch and soon after returned to Rome, where he was welcomed by Tiberius and became the constant campanion of the emperor Gaius (Caligula), then a popular favourite.
37 Caligula, having ascended the throne, heaped wealth and favours upon Agrippa, set a royal diadem upon his head and gave him the tetrarchy of Batanaea and Trachonitis, which Philip, the son of Herod the Great, had formerly possessed.
Herod Philip >>