The capital of the state (since 1882) is Hermosillo (pop. 190o, 17,618), on the Sonora river, 110 m.
North of Hermosillo, and Ures, the old capital of Sonora and seat of a bishopric, 33 m.
The maximum temperatures in this region are 98° at Hermosillo and 119° at Guaymas.
Another line built with American capital and in connexion with American railway interests extends southward from Nogales, on the northern frontier, to Hermosillo, Guaymas and Mazatlan; it is to be extended to Guadalajara and possibly to other points in southern Mexico.