83 (1860), p. 449 f.; Hermes 25 (1890), p. 141 f.; A.
On the Propertii see Mommsen in Hermes, iv.
A likeness of him has possibly been preserved in a double Hermes in the Villa Albani and the Vatican, which represents a young beardless Roman, of a nervous and somewhat sickly appearance, together with a Greek poet (Visconti, Iconograph.
As the rainbow unites earth and heaven, Iris is the messenger of the gods to men; in this capacity she is mentioned frequently in the Iliad, but never in the Odyssey, where Hermes takes her place.
She is especially the messenger of Zeus and Hera, and is associated with Hermes, whose caduceus or staff she often holds.
Priam, guarded by Hermes, went to Achilles and prevailed on him to give back the body, which was buried with great honour.
Brieger, "Die Grundziige der heraklitischen Physik" in Hermes, xxxix.
According to one story, it was founded by the Egyptian god Hermes (Thoth), the reputed inventor of the arts and sciences, to whom, under the appellation Hermes Trismegistus, Tertullian refers as the master of those who occupy themselves with nature; after him later alchemists called their work the " hermetic art," and the seal of Hermes, which they placed upon their vessels, is the origin of the common phrase " hermetically sealed."
Even in the Leiden papyrus the astronomical symbols for the sun and moon are used to denote gold and silver, and in the Meteorologica of Olympiodorus lead is attributed to Saturn, iron to Mars, copper to Venus, tin to Hermes (Mercury) and electrum to Jupiter.
The chief native deities were Dionysus, Ares and Bendis (Artemis), but many of these tribes had Celtic chiefs, who traced their descent from and worshipped a god called Hermes by the Greeks, but possibly Odin.
Cooked pulse was offered to Hermes, in his capacity of a.
By the early Greek alchemists the metal was named Hermes, but at about the beginning of the 6th century, it was termed Zeusor Jupiter, and the symbol 2(assigned to it; it was also referred to as diabolus metallorum, on account of the brittle alloys which it formed.
Flach, Die Kaiserin Eudokia Makrembolitissa (Tubingen, 1876); P. Pulch, De Eudociae quod fertur Violario (Strassburg, 1880); and in Hermes, xvii.
The figure of Hermes in Greek Art, fig.
Hats, which were as a rule worn only by youths, workmen and slaves, were of circular shape, and either of some stiff material, as the Boeotian hat observed in terra-cottas from Tanagra, or of pliant material which could be bent down at the sides like the irETaaos worn by Hermes and sometimes even by women.
(on headgear); Hermes xxxix.
The fact that at Lystra the natives styled Barnabas, Zeus, and Paul, Hermes, while suggesting that Barnabas was the man of nobler mien, proves that Paul was the chief speaker (xiv.
When he came near the tombs, he drew some water with which he washed the gravestones, afterwards anointing them with perfume; he then sacrificed the bull on the altar calling upon Zeus Chthonios and Hermes Psychopompos, and inviting them in company with the heroes to the festival of blood.
Apart from his idylls and his elegies, Chenier also experimented from early youth in didactic and philosophic verse, and when he commenced his Hermes in 1783 his ambition was to condense the Encyclopedia of Diderot into a poem somewhat after the manner of Lucretius.
Anubis came to be considered especially the attendant of the gods and conductor of the dead, and hence was commonly identified with Hermes (cf.
The name Hermanubis); but the role of Hermes as the god of eloquence, inventor of arts and recorder of the gods was taken by Thoth.
While doing this he was slain by Hermes, who stoned him to death, or put him to sleep by playing on the flute and then cut off his head.
On the chronology of the letters, &c., Mommsen, in Hermes, iii.
The Egyptian writer Hermes Trismegistus (c. 250), in a work called Asclepius (cited by Augustine, De civit.
23) relates how, according to Hermes, the spirits entered by invitation (spiritus invitatos), so that the images became bodies of the gods (corpora deorum).
A paper by Mommsen in Hermes, iii.
Others assume it to be Myrtilus, a son of Hermes and Clytie, and charioteer to Oenomaus, who was placed in the heavens by Hermes.
Angaben Herodots fiber Asien," in Hermes, vi.; Biidinger, Zur agyptischen Forschung Herodots (Vienna, 1873, reprinted from the Sitzungsber.
Both in literature and cult Hermes was constantly associated with the protection of cattle and sheep; at Tanagra and elsewhere his title was Kpcoc60pos, the ram-bearer.
490) and the later epic hymn to Hermes; and his Homeric titles aKaK1 7 Ta, ipcobvcos, &.'rwp Eawv, probably refer to him as the giver of fertility.
Treasure found in the road ('p,uacov) was the gift of Hermes, and any stroke of good luck was attributed to him; but it may be doubted whether his patronage of luck in general was developed from his function as a god of roads.
The trickery and cunning of Hermes is a Prominent theme in literature from Homer downwards, although it is very rarely recognized in official cult.
2 In the hymn to Hermes the god figures as a precocious child (a type familiar in folk-lore), who when a new-born babe steals the cows of Apollo.
In addition to these characteristics various other functions were assigned to Hermes, who developed, perhaps, into the most complete type of the versatile Greek.
Hermes was a patron of music, like Apollo, and invented the cithara; he presided over the games, with Apollo and Heracles, and his statues were common in the stadia and gymnasia.
A further point of contact between Hermes and Apollo may here be noted: both had prophetic powers, although Hermes held a place far inferior to that of the Pythian god, and possessed no famous oracle.
The "Homeric" Hymn to Hermes explains these minor gifts of prophecy as delegated by Apollo, who alone knew the mind of Zeus.
Only a single oracle is recorded for Hermes, in the market-place of Pharae in Achaea, and here the procedure was akin to popular divination.
27.1) and of the custom of allowing promiscuous thieving during the festival of Hermes at Samos (Plut.
According to Plutarch the ancients "set Hermes by the side of Aphrodite," i.e.
But this phallic character does not explain other aspects of Hermes, as the messenger-god, the master-thief or the ideal Greek ephebe.
It is more probable that the Olympian Hermes represents the fusion of several distinct deities.
Some scholars hold that the various functions of Hermes may have originated from the idea of good luck which is so closely bound up with his character.
Thus the two aspects of Hermes which seem most discordant are referred to a single origin.
It must, in fact, be remembered that men make their gods after their own likeness; and, whatever his origin, Hermes in particular was endowed with many of the qualities and habits of the Greek race.
The oldest form under which Hermes was represented was that of the Hermae mentioned above.
In the 4th century this type was probably fixed by Praxiteles in his statue of Hermes at Olympia.
43 and 82 (Plate VI.) represent the Hermes of Praxiteles; fig.
57 (Plate II.), a professed copy of the Hermes of Alcamenes.
Hephaestus gave her a human voice, Aphrodite beauty and powers of seduction, Hermes cunning and the art of flattery.