The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular with parts in fives (pentamerous) throughout, though exceptions from the pentamerous arrangement occur.
The fact that all the Euthyneura are hermaphrodite is not a fundamental difference; several Streptoneura are so, likewise Valvata, Oncidiopsis, Marsenina, Odostomia, Bathysciadium, Entoconcha).
Hermaphrodite or bisexual flowers are those in which both these organs are found; unisexual or diclinous are those in which only one of these organs appears, - those bearing stamens only, being staminiferous or " male "; those having the pistil only, pistilliferous or " female."
The flowers hitherto regarded as female were in some cases at least hermaphrodite, FIG.
Paniceae (about 25 genera, tropical to subtropical; a few temperate), a second flower, generally male, rarely hermaphrodite, is often present below the fertile flower.
Gamous flowers (that is, male, female and hermaphrodite), solitary, in slender, tubular spathes; the male flowers become detached and rise to the surface; the females are raised to the surface when mature, and receive the floating pollen from the male.
When both are present the flower is hermaphrodite; and in descriptive botany such a flower is indicated by the symbol l.
But even in plants with hermaphrodite flowers self-fertilization is often provided against by the structure of the parts or by the period of ripening of the organs.
When the male and female flowers of a species are found on separate plants, the term dioecious is applied, as in Mercurialis and hemp; and when a species has male, female and hermaphrodite flowers on the same or different plants, as in Parietaria, it is polygamous.
To allure and attract them to visit the flower the odoriferous secretions and gay colours are developed, and the position and complicated structure of the parts of the flower are adapted to the perfect performance of the process, It is comparatively rare in hermaphrodite flowers for self-fertilization to occur, and the various forms of dichogamy, dimorphism and trimorphism are fitted to prevent this.
In most cases the adults are hermaphrodite, but unisexual forms also occur, whilst the hermaphrodite adults may carry with them minute " complementary " males.
It remains to be seen if the ovuliferous cone in the centre of the flower represents simply a functionless gynoecium, as in Welwitschia and abnormal cones of certain Coniferae, or if the flowers were hermaphrodite, with both male and female organs fully developed.
In the most primitive condition the genital duct is single throughout its length and has a single external aperture; it is therefore said to be monaulic. The hermaphrodite aperture is on the right side near the opening of the pallial cavity, and a ciliated groove conducts the spermatozoa to the penis, which is situated more anteriorly.
In the male of Phyllodromia the rudiment of a vestigial ovary becomes separated from the developing testis, indicating perhaps an originally hermaphrodite condition.
The majority of species are hermaphrodite and many are capable of self-impregnation.
These forms are hermaphrodite, with an ovary and testis completely separate from each other on each side of the body, each having its own duct and aperture.
Leptonidae.-Shell thin; no siphons; foot long and byssiferous; marine; hermaphrodite and incubatory.
Cycladidae.-One siphon or two free siphons with simple orifices; pallial line simple; hermaphrodite, embryos incubated in external gill-plate; freshwater, Cyclas; British.
The gonads are paired and hermaphrodite, they form a pair of anterior prolongations of the pericardium, extending nearly to the anterior end of the body.
18, and Paniceae), and in these the male flower of a spikelet always blooms later than the hermaphrodite, so that its pollen can only effect cross-fertilization upon other spikelets in the same or another plant.
It is probable that the flowers of Bennettites were normally hermaphrodite, and they may have been markedly protandrous.
The sexes are distinct (with the exception of a few forms that are hermaphrodite), and the male is always smaller than the female.
(In Hydra, on the other hand, the individual is usually hermaphrodite.) The medusa always reproduces itself sexually, and in some cases non-sexually also.
The body bears tentacles, but shows no division into hydrorhiza, hydrocaulus or hydranth; it is temporarily fixed and has no perisarc. The polyp is usually hermaphrodite, developing both ovaries and testes in the same individual.
Entocolax, mouth at free extremity, animal fixed by aboral orifice of pseudopallium, Pacific. Entoconcha, body elongated and tubular, animal fixed by the oral extremity, protandric hermaphrodite, parasitic in testes of Holothurians causing their abortion.
K, Opening of the albuphrodite duct, which very soon becomes miniparous gland into P Y the hermaphrodite entwined in the spire of a gland - the duct.
- Follicles of the hermaphrodite gonads of Euthyneurous Gastropods.
The Pulmonata are, like the other Euthyneura, hermaphrodite, with elaborately developed copulatory organs and accessory glands.
Other Pulmonata exhibit variations of secondary importance in the details of this hermaphrodite apparatus.
The animals being hermaphrodite copulate reciprocally.
The flowers, which are generally arranged in a cymose inflorescence, are hermaphrodite, hypogynous, and, except in Pelargoniums, regular.
The latter opens e, Hermaphrodite duct into the common duct at the point k, (uterine portion).
Thus the whole of the Pulmonata (which breathe air, are destitute of gill-plumes and operculum and have a complicated hermaphrodite reproductive system) are either snails or slugs.
Hermaphrodite forms are unknown.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
In some Lamellibranchs - for instance, the European Oyster and the Pisidium pusillum - the sexes are united in the same individual; but here, as in most hermaphrodite animals, the two sexual elements are not ripe in the same individual at the same moment.
Amphogona, hermaphrodite, with male and female gonads on alternating radial canals.
A further degree of modification occurs when the male duct takes its origin from the hermaphrodite duct above the external opening, so that there are two distinct apertures, one male and one female, the latter being the original opening.
In front of the osphradium is the single genital pore, the aperture of the common or hermaphrodite duct.
From the ovo-testis, which lies near the apex of the visceral coil, a common hermaphrodite duct ve proceeds, which receives the duct of the compact white albuminiparous gland, Ed, and then becomes much enlarged, the additional width being due to the development of glandular folds, which are regarded as forming a uterus u.
Hermaphrodite, the ovaries and testes distinct, with separate apertures.
The Platyelmia are hermaphrodite and the reproductive organs are complex.
The worm inhabits the lung of the frog and toad, and is hermaphrodite (Schneider) or parthenogenetic (Leuckart); the embryos hatched from the eggs find their way through the lungs into the alimentary canal and thence to the exterior; in a few days they develop into a sexual larva, called a Rhabditiform larva, in which the sexes are distinct; the eggs remain within the uterus, and the young when hatched break through its walls and live free in the perivisceral cavity of the mother, devouring the organs of the body until only the outer cuticle is left; this eventually breaks and sets free the young, which are without teeth, and have therefore lost the typical Rhabditis form.
Hermaphrodite; head with appendage on right side; radula without central tooth.
Enteroxenos, no pseudo pallium and no intestine, hermaphrodite, larvae with operculum.
H, Hermaphrodite duct.
In bisexual or hermaphrodite flowers, that is, those in which both stamens and pistil are present, though self-pollination might seem the obvious course, this is often prevented or hindered by various arrangements which favour cross-pollination.
U, Hermaphrodite gonad.