The general laws of heredity and variation have been proved to apply to man as well as to animals and plants.
I guess so, but I wonder sometimes if heredity is the major factor.
George Sand, who was a firm believer in the doctrine of heredity, devotes a whole volume of her autobiography (Histoire de ma vie, 1857 seq.) to the elaboration of this strange pedigree.
It depends on heredity, what you feed them, time of the year and a lot of other factors.
Allen, "Heredity of Coat Colour in Mice," Proc. Amer.
(New York); "Mendel's Law of Heredity," Science, N.S.
Bateson, Mendel's Principles of Heredity (Cambridge, 1909); E.
Lock, Recent Progress in the Study of Variation, Heredity and Evolution (London, 1906); T.
But even were the laws of heredity and variation better understood, the fact remains that we know little of the origin of the majority of our domestic animals.
The better we understand the laws of heredity and variation, and the more we learn of the history of the germ cells, the less need will there be to seek for explanations from telegony and other like doctrines.
At present, however, the theory of heredity is usually held in conjunction with Darwin's theory of natural selection; according to which different kinds of living things in the course of a series of generations come gradually to be endowed with organs, faculties and habits tending to the preservation of the individual or species under the conditions of life in which it is placed.
We do not yet know whether such absolute blending is possible or not, or whether all apparent blending is only a more or less minutely subdivided " mosaic " of non-combinable characters of the parents, in fact whether the combinations due to heredity in reproduction are ever analogous to chemical compounds or are always comparable to particulate mixtures.
All these principles are consistent with Francis Galton's law of particulate inheritance in heredity, and with the modern doctrine of " unity of characters " held by students of Mendelian phenomena.
The weakness of the NeoLamarckian view lies in its interpretation of heredity; its strength lies in its zealous study of the living world and the detection therein of proximate empirical laws, a strength shared by very many bionomical investigations, the authors of which would prefer to call themselves Darwinians, or to leave themselves without sectarian designation.
These are discussed under the headings Heredity; Mendelism; and Variation And Selection.
The horror aroused by this crime did not long deaden the feeling, at least in official circles, that something must be done to introduce the principle of heredity, as the surest means of counteracting the aims of conspirators.
Instinctive behaviour thus depends solely on how the nervous system has been built through heredity; while intelligent behaviour depends also on those characters of the nervous system which have been acquired under the modifying influence of individual relation to the environment.
Thus Bionomics is treated in such articles as Evolution, Heredity, Variation, Mendelism, Reproduction, Sex, &C.; Zoo-dynamics under Medicine, Surgery, Physiology, Anatomy, Embryology, and allied articles; Plasmology under Cytology, Protoplasm, &C.; and Philosophical Zoology under numerous headings, Evolution, Biology, &C. See also Zoological Distribution, Palaeontology, Ocranography, Microtomy, &C.
Here Cuvier was imperfectly formulating, without recognizing the real physical basis of the phenomena, the results of the laws of heredity, which were subsequently investigated and brought to bear on the problems of animal structure by Darwin.
In the branch of bionomics, however, concerned with the laws of variation and heredity (thremmatology), there has been considerable progress.
If the earlier characters were not maintained by heredity why should the later be ?
If a character of much longer standing (certain properties of height, length, breadth, colour, &c.) had not become fixed and congenital after many thousands of successive generations of individuals had developed it in response to environment, but gave place to a new character when new moulding conditions operated on an individual (Lamarck's first law), why should we suppose that the new character is likely to become fixed and transmitted by mere heredity after a much shorter time of existence in response to environmental stimulus ?
By it a new heredity, free from the limitations of protoplasmic continuity, is established.
But practical necessity has given rise to the existence of many other divisions; see CYTOLOGY, for the structure of cells; EMBRYOLOGY, for the development of individual organisms; HEREDITY and REPRODUCTION, for the relations between parents and offspring.
To heredity, as an indirect or predisposing cause, has probably been assigned too great importance, and the many facts brought forward of the relative frequency of cancer in members of one family only justify the conclusion that the tissue-resistance of certain families is lowered.
Trans., London, 1899); Weismann, Essays upon Heredity (Eng.
Holiness is dangerous and may even involve degradation, as in the case of the Burmese para-gyoon or servitor of the pagoda who is by heredity for ever a slave and outcast, unclean of the unclean, with whom none may eat or intermarry, yet ever tending and keeping clean the shrine.
If he is to be believed, at the bottom of all organic evolution organic impulses becoming habits produce structural changes, which are transmitted by heredity; and as an impulse thus gradually becomes secondarily automatic, the will passes to higher activities, which in their turn become secondarily automatic, and so on.
Now we know, from the numerous experiments in heredity which have resulted since the rediscovery of Mendel's principles, that an individual may carry a character in one of two conditions.
The operation of Mendelian processes in human heredity is further shown by the close relationship that exists between the appearance of albinoes and cousin marriages.
Albinism appears, in the processes of heredity, to be sometimes indissolubly correlated with certain peculiar traits.
C. C. Hurst has shown that the long-haired and albino characters are always accompanied in heredity with the swaying habit.
Bateson, Mendel's Principles of Heredity, a Defence (Cambridge, 1902); W.
Saunders, "Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity," Reports to the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, Report I..
Xviii.; C. C. Hurst, "Experimental Studies on Heredity in Rabbits," Journ.
The general relation between parent and filial organisms is discussed under Heredity and Embryology; many of the details of the cellular processes are dealt with under Cytology, and the modes of reproduction exhibited by different kinds of animals and plants are treated of in the various articles describing individual groups.
A similar kind of segregation may take place in the formation of the repeated parts of an organism, so that symmetrical repetition may be compared with normal heredity, and be due to the presence of similar factors in the divisions of the embryonic cells, whilst the differentiation of repeated parts may be due to the unequal distribution of such factors and be comparable with variation.
It can hardly be said that the science has advanced beyond the stage of disseminating a knowledge of the laws of heredity, so far as they are surely known, and endeavouring to promote their further study.
The new constitution proclaimed the heredity of the Bohemian crown in the house of Habsburg.
The history of this family, the Rougon-Macquart, was to be told in a series of novels containing a scientific study of heredity - science was always Zola's ignis fatuus - and a picture of French life and society.
They are subjects for a scientific psychology employing the historical method with the conceptions of heredity and development, and calling to its aid, as such a psychology will do, the investigations of all the sociological sciences.
In more recent times the controversy has been concerned either with the attempted proof of determinism by the advocates of psychological Hedonism, an attempt which at the present time is generally admitted to have failed; or with the new biological knowledge concerning the influence of heredity and environment in its bearing upon the development of character and the possibility of freedom.
The unreflective moral consciousness never finds it difficult to distinguish between a man's power of willing and all the forces of circumstance, heredity and the like, which combine to form the temptations to which he may yield or bid defiance; and such facts as " remorse " and " penitence " are a continual testimony to man's sense of freedom.
This argument has been met in recent times by the application to mind of the physiological theory of heredity, according to which changes produced in the mind (brain) of a parent, by association of ideas or otherwise, tend to be inherited by his offspring; so that the development of the moral sense or any other faculty or susceptibility of existing man may be hypothetically carried back into the prehistoric life of the human race, without any change in the manner of derivation supposed.
Unable to take Milan, Conrad issued in May 1037 an edictum de beneficiis, by which he decreed that the principle of heredity should apply in Italy to lands held by sub vassals,, and that this class of tenants should not be deprived e;f their lands except by the sentence of their peers, and should retain the right of appeal to the emperor.
Hence, at the end of the cth century, the heredity of offices as well as of fiefs.
Philips son was the first of the Capets who was not crowned during his fathers lifetime; a fact clearly showing that the principle of heredity had now been established beyond discussion.
Whatever value is to be attached to Mendel's observation of the breaking up of self-fertilized hybrids of cultivated varieties into the two original parent forms according to the formula " 'PP, 2PN, INN," it cannot be considered as more than a contribution to the extensive investigation of heredity which still remains to be carried out.
It will be seen that from the biological standpoint there fall under the stricter definition those hereditary modes of behaviour which are analogous to hereditary forms of structure; and that a sharp line of distinction is drawn between the behaviour which is thus rendered definite through heredity, and the behaviour the distinguishing characteristics of which are acquired in the course of individual life.
Allen, "Mendel's Law and the Heredity of Albinism," Proc. Amer.