With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
By the time of the jurists it had become hereditary and compulsory.
" Character," says George Sand, " is in a great measure hereditary: if my readers wish to know me they must know my father."
This office did not become hereditary, however, and his descendants bore simply the title of counts of Scheyern until about 1116, when the emperor Henry V.
He no longer seemed stout, though he still had the appearance of solidity and strength hereditary in his family.
In the region east of KroIa the Mat tribe, which occupies the upper valley of the Matia, presents an 'entirely different organization; their district is governed by four wealthy families, possessing hereditary rank and influence.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
He spent several years in establishing his authority there, but found some difficulty in making these provinces hereditary in his family.
As a whole, the Malays are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and hereditary diseases are rare among them.
In 1879 he was made hereditary member of the Upper House.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
Auvergne was the seat of a separate countship before the end of the 8th century; the first hereditary count was William the Pious (886).
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.
Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
It is clear, however, that an equal quantitative division and distribution of the chromatin to the daughter cells is brought about; and if, as has been suggested, the chromatin consists of minute particles or units which are the carriers of the hereditary characteristics, the nuclear division also probably results in the equal division and distribution of one half of each of these units to each daughter cell.
Adaptive characters are often hereditary, for instance, the seed of a parasite will produce a parasite, and the same is true of a carnivorous plant.
This was the grandfather of the fifteenth duke, earl of Arundel, Surrey and Norfolk, and hereditary earl marshal of England.
In 1497 he attacked and gained possession of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he had a natural and hereditary right.
Still there was a wide difference between the duke of the Normans and the duke of Apulia, between an hereditary prince of a hundred and fifty years' standing and an adventurer who had carved out his duchy for himself.
Ledged pre-eminence, a pre-eminence founded on hereditary succession, and on nothing else.
The peer holds a great position, endowed with substantial powers and privileges, and those powers and privileges are handed on by hereditary succession.
Nobility thus implies the vesting of some hereditary privilege or advantage in certain families, without deciding in what such privilege or advantage consists.
As the non-privileged order increased in numbers, while the privileged order, as every exclusive hereditary body must do, lessened, the larger body gradually put on the character of the nation at large, while the smaller body put on the character of a nobility.
The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
In England, the royal almonry still forms a part of the sovereign's household, the officers being the hereditary grand almoner (the marquess of Exeter), the lord high almoner, the sub-almoner, and the secretary to the lord high almoner.
Once more, it must be borne in mind that, while it is essential to the idea of nobility that it should carry with it some hereditary privilege, the nature and extent of that privilege may vary endlessly.
The tendency of modern times has been towards the breaking down of formal hereditary privileges.
To his grandson Thomas, a lunatic living at Padua, on whose death in 1677 it passed to this Thomas's brother, Henry Frederick, who had been created earl of Norwich and hereditary earl marshal of England in 1672.
On the other hand, adaptations, especially those evoked by climatic or edaphic conditions, may only, be shown by the seedling if grown under the appropriate external conditions; here what is hereditary is not the actual adaptation, but the capacity for responding in a particular way to a certain set of external conditions.
At the close of the nth century the system of feudal states had been firmly established in the Netherlands under stable dynasties hereditary or episcopal, and, despite the The continual wars between them, civilization had begun to crusades.