There were no hereditary or formally elected chiefs, nor was there any vestige of monarchy.
By the time of the jurists it had become hereditary and compulsory.
With the crystallization of the feudal system in the 12th century the office of vidame, like that of avoue, had become an hereditary fief.
Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
" Character," says George Sand, " is in a great measure hereditary: if my readers wish to know me they must know my father."
This office did not become hereditary, however, and his descendants bore simply the title of counts of Scheyern until about 1116, when the emperor Henry V.
He no longer seemed stout, though he still had the appearance of solidity and strength hereditary in his family.
In the region east of KroIa the Mat tribe, which occupies the upper valley of the Matia, presents an 'entirely different organization; their district is governed by four wealthy families, possessing hereditary rank and influence.
About 1760 a Moslem chieftain, Mehemet of Bushat, after obtaining the pashalik of Scutari from the Porte, succeeded in establishing an almost independent sovereignty in Upper Albania, which remained hereditary in his family for some generations.
He spent several years in establishing his authority there, but found some difficulty in making these provinces hereditary in his family.
Their hereditary chiefs, or capidans, belong to the family known as Dera e Jon Markut (the house of John Marco), which has ruled for 200 years and is supposed to be descended from Scanderbeg.
In the criminal court of Scotland, the earl of Argyll, hereditary justice-general of the kingdom, sometimes presided in person, but more frequently he delegated his functions; and it appears that in 1561 Archibald Napier was appointed one of the justice-deputes.
For the nethinim ("` given") and "children of the slaves of Solomon" (whose hereditary service would give them a pre-eminence over the temple slaves), see art.
The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
At the close of the nth century the system of feudal states had been firmly established in the Netherlands under stable dynasties hereditary or episcopal, and, despite the The continual wars between them, civilization had begun to crusades.
The Bald, whose daughter Judith he had abducted, on receiving the hereditary title of count of Flanders.
As a whole, the Malays are, however, a remarkably healthy people, and deformity and hereditary diseases are rare among them.
In 1879 he was made hereditary member of the Upper House.
The word thane was used in Scotland until the 15th century, to describe an hereditary non-military tenant of the crown.
Auvergne was the seat of a separate countship before the end of the 8th century; the first hereditary count was William the Pious (886).
The Breisgau, originally a pagus or gau of the Frankish empire, was ruled during the middle ages by hereditary counts.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
The former existence of so many separate sovereignties and fountains of honor gave nse to a great many hereditary titles of nobility.
Besides many hundreds of princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, barons and viscounts, there are a large number of persons of patrician rank, persons with a right to the designation nobile or signor-i, and certain hereditary knights or cavalieri.
Early in the 10th century the papacy fell into the hands of a noble family, known eventually as the counts of Tusculum, who almost succeeded in rendering the office hereditary, and in uniting the civil and ecclesiastical functions of the city under a single member of their house.
In Italy, divided between feudal nobles and almost hereditary ecclesiastics, of foreign blood and alien sympathies, there was no national feeling.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.
Though a strong Tory and supporter of the hereditary principle, James's attacks on Protestantism soon drove him into opposition.
In 1705 he supported a motion that the church was in danger, and in 1710 in Sacheverell's case spoke in defence of hereditary right.'
His views on church polity were dominated by his implicit belief in the divine right of kings (not of course the divine hereditary right of kings) which the Anglicans felt it necessary to set up against the divine right of popes.
In England, the royal almonry still forms a part of the sovereign's household, the officers being the hereditary grand almoner (the marquess of Exeter), the lord high almoner, the sub-almoner, and the secretary to the lord high almoner.
Ledged pre-eminence, a pre-eminence founded on hereditary succession, and on nothing else.
The peer holds a great position, endowed with substantial powers and privileges, and those powers and privileges are handed on by hereditary succession.
Nobility thus implies the vesting of some hereditary privilege or advantage in certain families, without deciding in what such privilege or advantage consists.
As the non-privileged order increased in numbers, while the privileged order, as every exclusive hereditary body must do, lessened, the larger body gradually put on the character of the nation at large, while the smaller body put on the character of a nobility.
The device of hereditary coat-armour, a growth of the 12th century, did much to define and mark out the noble class throughout Europe.
Once more, it must be borne in mind that, while it is essential to the idea of nobility that it should carry with it some hereditary privilege, the nature and extent of that privilege may vary endlessly.
The tendency of modern times has been towards the breaking down of formal hereditary privileges.
Still there was a wide difference between the duke of the Normans and the duke of Apulia, between an hereditary prince of a hundred and fifty years' standing and an adventurer who had carved out his duchy for himself.
In 1497 he attacked and gained possession of Samarkand, to which he always seems to have thought he had a natural and hereditary right.
To his grandson Thomas, a lunatic living at Padua, on whose death in 1677 it passed to this Thomas's brother, Henry Frederick, who had been created earl of Norwich and hereditary earl marshal of England in 1672.