This Volkerpsychologie (folkor comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists.
But, in thus adapting to his own purposes the Leibnitzian analysis of material into immaterial, he drew his own conclusions according to his own metaphysics, which required that the supposed centres of force are not Leibnitzian " monads," nor Herbartian " reals," nor divine modifications such as Lotze afterwards supposed, but are elements of a system which in outer aspect is bodily and in inner aspect is spiritual, and obeying laws of spirit.
A Herbartian strain is to be met with also in the thought of writers much further afield, for example F.
In Lotze's pure logic it is the Herbartian element that tends to be disconcerting.
Adams, The Herbartian Psychology applied to Education (1897); F.
Darroch, Herbart and the Herbartian Theory of Education (1903); C. J.
Dodd; Introduction to the Herbartian Principles of Teaching (1904); J.