641), was the son of Heraclius and Martina.
At the end of Heraclius' reign he obtained through his mother's influence the title of Augustus (638), and after his father's death was proclaimed joint emperor with his half-brother Constantine III.
After a severe struggle the Persians were defeated by the emperor Heraclius, who entered Jerusalem in triumph in 62 9 bringing with him the holy cross, which had been carried off by Chosroes.
When the African governor Heraclius declared against him, Phocas was deserted by the starving populace of Constantinople, and deposed with scarcely a struggle (610).
The author designates the story of the later empire at Constantinople (after Heraclius) as " a uniform tale of weakness and misery," a judgment which is entirely false; and in accordance with this doctrine, he makes the empire, which is his proper subject, merely a string for connecting great movements which affected it, such as the Saracen conquests, the Crusades, the Mongol invasions, the Turkish conquests.
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
His grandfather, Antoine Louis Marie, duc de Gramont (1755-1836), had emigrated during the Revolution, and his father, Antoine Heraclius Genevieve Agenor (1789-1855), duc de Gramont and de Guiche, fought under the British flag in the Peninsular War, became a lieutenantgeneral in the French army in 1823, and in 1830 accompanied Charles X.
But in the 7th century they were defeated by Heraclius, and shortly afterwards were annihilated before the first impetus of the Mahommedan conquest, which established Islam in Persia and the neighbouring lands, sweeping away old civilizations and boundaries.
In the reign of Heraclius, re-peopled Constantinople (after it.
Germanicia-Marasion played a great part in Byzantine border warfare: Heraclius was there in A.D.
In 616 it was taken by Chosroes, king of Persia; and in 6 4 o by the Arabians, under `Amr, after a siege that lasted fourteen months, during which Heraclius, the emperor of Constantinople, did not send a single ship to its assistance.
(628-644) on a mission to Heraclius, Sahdona was converted, apparently to catholicism,' and thereby caused much scandal in the East.
In 665 Heraclius Constans fixed his capital here, but owing to his oppressive government was assassinated in 668.
At last, in 622, the emperor Heraclius (who had succeeded Phocas in 610) was able to take the field.
In 627 Heraclius defeated the Persian army at Nineveh and advanced towards Ctesiphon.
Meanwhile, Heraclius returned in triumph to Constantinople, in 629 the Cross was given back to him and Egypt evacuated, while the Persian empire, from the apparent greatness which it had reached ten years ago, sank into hopeless anarchy.
Tradition tells that a few years before his death he did actually send letters to the emperor Heraclius, to the negus of Abyssinia, the king of Persia, and Cyrus, patriarch of Alexandria, the " Mukaukis " of Egypt, summoning them to accept Islam and threatening them with punishment in case of refusal.
The khakan, enticed by the promise of an imperial princess, furnished Heraclius with 40,000 men for his Persian war, who shared in the victory over Chosroes at Nineveh.
HERACLIUS (`HpaxXc os) (c. 575-642), East Roman emperor, was born in Cappadocia.
Proclaimed emperor, Heraclius set himself to reorganize the utterly disordered administration.
After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars, Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627).
Though deserted by the Khazars, with whom he had made an alliance upon entering into Pontus, he gained a decisive advantage by a brilliant march across the Armenian highlands into the Tigris plain, and a hard-fought victory over Chosroes' general, Shahrbaraz, in which Heraclius distinguished himself by his personal bravery.
Having thus secured his eastern frontier, Heraclius returned to Constantinople with ample spoils, including the true cross, which in 629 he brought back in person to Jerusalem.
The triumphs which Heraclius had won through his own energy and skill did not bring him lasting popularity.
Worn out by continuous fighting and weakened by dropsy, Heraclius failed to show sufficient energy against the new peril that menaced his eastern provinces towards the end of his reign.
Heraclius made no attempt to retrieve the misfortunes of his generals, but evacuated his possessions in sullen despair.
Heraclius died of his disease in 642.
In spite of his partial failures, Heraclius must be regarded as one of the greatest of Byzantine emperors, and his early campaigns were the means of saving the realm from almost certain destruction.
Al-Walid, whom Abu Bekr sent in all haste from Irak to Syria, he defeated the imperial troops, commanded by Theodorus, the brother of Heraclius, not far from Ramleh in Palestine, on the 31st of July 634.
Educated with great care, he early became distinguished by his talents and acquirements, and some time after the accession of the emperor Heraclius in 610 was made his private secretary.
In 649, after the accession of Martin I., he went to Rome, and did much to fan the zeal of the new pope, who in October of that year held the (first) Lateran synod, by which not only the Monothelite doctrine but also the moderating ecthesis of Heraclius and typus of Constans II.
Finally Heraclius turned the tide, and Kavadh II.
And Heraclius had been at death grips with each other a great invasion had been preparing in Arabia.
The Arab tribes in Mesopotamia were Christian, and Heraclius at Edessa hoped for their support; but Karkisiya and Hit succumbed (636), and then Tekrit; and Heraclius retired to Samosata.
From the close of the 5th century the Armenians have remained monophysite, like the Copts and Abyssinians, and have only broken the record with occasional short interludes of orthodoxy, as when in 633 the emperor Heraclius forced reunion on them, under a catholicus named Esdras, at a council held in Erzerum.
After the retaking of Jerusalem and recovery of the Cross from the Persians in the eighteenth year of his reign, Heraclius called a mixed council at Karin (Theodosiopolis) of Greeks and Armenians under Ezr (Esdras), catholicus, at which the preceding council of Dvin was cursed, its reforms repudiated and the confession of Chalcedon adopted.
629 Heraclius sent the patriarchal chair from Alexandria to Grado, to which city the patriarchate of Aquileia had been then transferred (Chron.
He entered into relations with the eastern empire, and swore a "perpetual peace" with the emperor Heraclius; and it is probable that the two sovereigns took common measures against the Slav and Bulgarian tribes, which ravaged in turn the Byzantine state and the German territories subject to the Franks.
In this condemnation were included, not only the Ecthesis or exposition of faith of the patriarch Sergius for which the emperor Heraclius had stood sponsor, but also the Typus of Paul, the successor of Sergius, which had the support of the reigning emperor (Constans II.).
After ten years of Persian dominion the success of Heraclius restored Egypt to the empire, and for a time it again received a Greek governor.
During the siege of Babylon he had been recalled and exiled, but after the death of Heraclius had been reinstated as patriarch by Heraclonas, and been welcomed back to Alexandria with general rejoicing in September 641.
635, during the reign of Heraclius, Antioch passed into Saracen hands, and decayed apace for more than 300 years; but in 969 it was recovered for Byzantium by Michael Burza and Peter the Eunuch.
The Emperor Heraclius reconquered the lost territory in 629.
Heraclius had not sufficient time to prepare to meet this new foe, and was defeated in his first engagement with Abu Bekr.
Meanwhile Heraclius was not idle.
Wrongs at the hands of certain of the Byzantine generals, the army of Heraclius was utterly defeated, and with it fell the Byzantine Empire in Syria and Palestine.
Damascus fell late in the summer of 635, and on the 10th of August 636 was fought the great decisive battle on the Hieromax (Yarmuk), which caused the emperor Heraclius finally to abandon Syria.'
The victories of Heraclius forced Chosroes to retire; but the Persians were followed by the Arabs, who, advancing with equal ease, laid siege to Constantinople, A.D.
In the intervalpresumably during the reign of Queen Boran peace was concluded with Heraclius, the old frontier being apparently restored.
In 1783, when the strength of the Persian monarchy was concentrated upon Isfahan and Shiraz, the Georgian tsar Heraclius entered into an agreement with the empress Catherine by which all connection with the shah was disavowed, and a quasi-vassalage to Russia substitutedthe said empire extending her aegis of protection over her new ally.