Its value, however, in certain cases of constipation of hepatic origin is undeniable.
The gall-bladder, appropriately designated as "the bitter," was regarded as a part of the liver, and the cystic duct (compared, apparently, to a "penis") to which it is joined, as well as the hepatic duct (pictured as an "outlet") and the ductus choleductus (described as a "yoke"), all had their special designations.
Lastly, to pass over unnecessary details, the markings of various kinds to be observed on the lobes of the livers of freshly-slaughtered animals, which are due mainly to the traces left by the subsidiary hepatic ducts and hepatic veins on the liver surface, were described as "holes," "paths," "clubs" and the like.
In the Disconectae the coenosarc forms a spongy mass, the " centradenia," which is partly hepatic in function, forming the socalled liver, and partly excretory.
The bird's liver receives nearly all the blood from the stomach, gut, pancreas and spleen, as well as from the left liver itself, into the right hepatic lobe, by a right and left portal vein.
The liver is no longer a compact organ opening by a pair of ducts into the median digestive tract, but we find very numerous hepatic diverticula on a shortened axial tract (fig.
The Eolid-like Nudibranchs, amongst other specialities of structure, possess (in some cases at any rate) apertures at the apices of the " cerata " or dorsal papillae, which lead from the exterior into the hepatic caeca.
M, Midgut, with its hepatic appendages h, all of which are not figured.
The springs are principally alkaline, alkaline and siliceous, acidic, or acidic and hepatic (sulphurous).
Certain free mobile cells within the body, such as blood-leucocytes, as well as others which are fixed, as for instance the endothelium of the hepatic capillaries, have the property of seizing upon some kinds of particulate matter brought within their reach.
Melanine particles formed in the spleen in malaria, which pass along with the blood through the liver, are appropriated by the endothelial cells of the hepatic capillaries, and are found embedded within their substance.
In height; its inner bark yields an extractive, juglandin, given as an hepatic stimulant and cathartic in doses of 2-5 grains.
Several kinds of aloes are distinguished in commerce - Barbadoes, Socotrine, hepatic, Indian, and Cape aloes.
Agricola in 1546 under the names Wasserkies or Weisserkies and Leberkies, and it has been variously known as white pyrites, hepatic pyrites, lamellar pyrites, radiated pyrites (German Strahlkies) and prismatic pyrites.
It is also an intestinal and hepatic stimulant and a feeble diuretic and diaphoretic, and has been considered a specific in some forms of neuralgia.
These purgative sodium salts are most useful in the treatment of chronic constipation, and of the constipation associated with gout and hepatic dyspepsia.
This is bounded on the left by the inferior vena cava, which is sunk into a deep groove in the liver, and into the upper part of this the hepatic veins open.
Again starting from the right side, two impressions are seen; the anterior one is for the hepatic flexure of the colon, and the posterior for the upper part of the right kidney.
This fissure represents the hilum of the liver, and contains the right and left hepatic ducts and the right and left branches of the hepatic artery and portal vein, together with nerves and lymphatics, the whole being enclosed in some condensed subperitoneal tissue known as Glisson's capsule.
The right and left hepatic ducts, while still in the transverse fissure, unite into a single duct which joins the cystic duct from the gall bladder at an acute angle.
From these intralobular capillaries run toward the centre of the lobule, forming a network among the polygonal hepatic cells.
These eventually reach the hepatic radicles, and so the blood is conducted into the vena cava.
From the cephalic part of this primary diverticulum solid rods of cells called the hepatic cylinders grow out, and these branch again and again until a cellular network is formed surrounding and breaking up the umbilical and vitelline veins.
Has on hepatic portal circula 'a' 1?
- Vertical section through two goes retrogression, and the hepatic lobules of a pig.
The Varanidae (Monitors) the hepatic duct is also retiform (see F.
- Transverse section through the hepatic lobules.
But when the hepatitis is of septic origin, suppuration is likely to occur, the result being an hepatic abscess.
Hepatic Abscess is especially common in persons from the East who have recently undergone an attack of dysentery.
If an hepatic abscess is injudiciously left to itself it may eventually discharge into the chest, lungs or belly, or it may establish a communication with a piece of intestine.
The individual is doubled up with acute pains which, starting from the hepatic region, spread through the abdomen and radiate to the right shoulder blade.
- Aplacophora without distinct ventral groove, with single median unisexual gonad, with differentiated hepatic sac, and with cloacal chamber furnished with two bipectinate gills.
The digestive tube is straight and simple, wider in its anterior part, into which opens the duct of the hepatic caecum (fig.
In pain due to violent sciatica relief and even permanent cure has been obtained by the injection of morphine directly into the muscle of the affected part, and in the treatment of renal and hepatic colic morphine given subcutaneously will relieve the acute pain consequent on the passage of biliary and urinary calculi.
A, Edge of groove formed by adhesion of median dorsal surface of alimentary canal to sheath of notochord; b, median dorsal surface of alimentary canal; c, left dorsal aorta; cc, single dorsal aorta, formed by union of the two anterior vessels; cc', same vessel resting on intestine; d, cut edge of pharyngo-pleural folds of atrial tunic, really the original outer body-wall before the downgrowth of epipleura; d', atrial tunic (original body-wall) at non-perforate region, cut and turned back so as to expose peri-enteric coelom and intestine r; e', upstanding folds of body-wall (pharyngo-pleural folds) on alternate bars of perforate region of body; f, atrio-coeiomic canals or brown funnels (collar-pores of Balanoglossus); g, cavity of a gonad-sac; m, cut musculature of body-wall; n, anus; o, post-atrioporal extension of atrial chamber in form of a tubular caecum; p, atriopore; q, hepatic caecum; r, intestine; s, coelom; t, area of adhesion between alimentary canal and sheath of notochord; v, atrial chamber or branchial cavity; w, post-atrioporal portion of intestine; x, canals of metapleura exposed by cutting; E, probe passing through atriopore into atrial or branchial chamber; FF', probe passing from coelom, where it expands behind the atriopore, into narrower perienteric coelom of praeatrioporal region.
A, Cavity surrounding fin ray; a', fin ray; b, muscular tissue of myotome; c, nervecord; d, notochord; c, left aorta; f, thickened ridges of epithelium of praeoral chamber (Rader organ); g, coiled tube lying in a coelomic space on right side of praeoral hood, apparently an artery; h, cuticle of notochord; i, connective-tissue sheath of notochord; k, median ridge of skeletal canal of nerve-cord; 1, skeletal canal protecting nerve-cord; m, inter-segmental skeletal septum of myotome; n, subcutaneous skeletal connective tissue; o, ditto of metapleur (this should be relatively thicker than it is); q, subcutaneous connective tissue of ventral surface of atrial wall (not a canal, as supposed by Stieda and others); r, epiblastic epithelium; s, gonad-sac containing ova; t, pharyngeal bar in section, one of the "tongue" bars alternating with the main bars and devoid of pharyngo-pleural fold and coelom; v, atrio-coelomic funnel; w, socalled "dorsal" coelom; x, lymphatic space or canal of metapleur; y, sub-pharyngeal vascular trunk; z, blood-vessel (portal vein) on wall of hepatic caecum; aa, space of atrial or branchial chamber; bb, ventral groove of pharynx (anteriorly this takes the form of a ridge); cc, hyperbranchial groove of pharynx; dd, lumen or space of hepatic caecum; ee, narrow coelomic space surrounding hepatic caecum; $, lining cell-layer of hepatic caecum; gg, inner face of a pharyngeal bar clothed with hypoblast, the outer face covered with epiblast (represented black); hh, a main pharyngeal bar with projecting pharyngeal fold (on which the reference line rests) in section, showing coelomic space beneath the black epiblast; ii, transverse ventral muscle of epipleura; kk, raphe or plane of fusion of two down-grown epipleura; 11, space and nucleated cells on dorsal face of notochord; mm, similar space and cells on its ventral face.
This is the hepatic caecum (fig.
No food passes into the hepatic caecum, which has been definitely shown on embryological and physiological grounds to be the simplest persistent form of the vertebrate liver.
Amongst other places having a similar action are Marienbad, Franzensbad and Tarasp. The waters just mentioned contain free alkali as well as sulphates, and are employed more especially in cases of hepatic disorder, such as congestion of the liver, jaundice, gall-stone and diabetes.
Waters which have a similar composition are drunk at the springs of Leamington and Cheltenham in England, Brides Salins and St Gervais in France, for chronic constipation, dyspepsia, gout and hepatic disorders of a milder character than those usually treated at Carlsbad.
In beginning treatment, it is well to clear the hepatic and alimentary passages by a preliminary dose of calomel combined with a secretory cholagogue, such as enonymin or iridin.