The shunts usually employed with the drum relay (referred to above) have each a resistance of about 30 ohms and an inductance of 20, 30 and 40 henrys respectively.
The average total inductive value of these bridges to received signals is about 40 henrys, and the coil is so arranged that the arms contain three sections or blocks of winding each, two of which are joined up to strap connexions, and the a p :?; .?
The barbarians accepted hit terms, and faithfully kept their word in regard to Henrys own lands, although Bavaria, Swabia and Franconia they occasionally invaded as before.
Although these preparations were carried on directly under Henrys supervision, only in Saxony and Thuringia the neighboring dukes were stimulated to follow his example.
But Henrys work concerned the duchy of Saxony rather than the kingdom of Germany.
In Saxony the people were quickly forgetting their hereditary connection with the successors of Henry the Fowler; in Bavaria, after the death of Duke Henry in 995, the nobles, heedless of the royal power, returned to the ancient German custom and chose Henrys son Henry as their ruler.
After Henrys death the nobles met at Kamba, near Oppenheim, and in September 1024 elected Conrad, a Franconian count, to the vacant throne.
This war was occasioned by the violence of the Hungarian usurper, Aba Samuel, and formed Henrys principal occupation from f041 to 1045.
Among the causes which undermined Henrys strength was the fact that the mediate nobles, who had stood loyally by his father, Conrad, were not his friends; probably his wars made serious demands upon them, and his strict administration of justice, especially his insistence upon the maintenance of the public peace, was displeasing to them.
At the beginning of Henrys reigh the church all over Europe was in a deplorable condition.
Compelling King Solomon to own Henrys supremacy he restored the influence of Germany in Hungary; in .internal affairs he restrained the turbulence of the princes, but he made many enemies, especially in Saxony, and in 1066 Henry, who had just been declared of age, was compelled to dismiss him.
The pope, to whom the Saxons had been encouraged to complain, responded by sending back certain of Henrys messengers, with the command that the king should do penance for the crimes of which his subjects accused him.
And Henrys now a pope attempted to drag from his throne the excomsuccessor of this very sovereign.
But Henrys bitter humiliations transformed his character; they brought out all his latent capacities of manliness.
Relied upon the princes and the opponents of a united and the Germany; or, to make another division, Henrys anti- strength lay in the duchies of Franconia and Bavaria, kings.
Meanwhile in Germany Henrys opponents had chosen Herrnann, count of Luxemburg, king in succession to Rudolph of Swabia.
Henrys chief friends were his nephews, the two Hohenstaufen princes, Frederick and Conrad, to whose father Frederick the emperor Henry IV.
Ascribing his defeat to Henrys defection, Frederick returned to Germany full of anger against the Saxon duke and firmly resolved to punish him.
The immediate cause of Henrys downfall, however, was not his failure to appear in Italy, but his refusal to restore some lands to the bishop of Halberstadt, and it was on this charge that he was summoned before the diet.
The first of these centred round the restless and unruly Welfs; after a time these insurgents were joined by their former enemies, the rulers of Saxony, of Thuringia and of Meissen, who were angered by Henrys conduct.
At Liege this led to serious complications; and when Bishop Albert, who had been chosen against Henrys wish, was murdered at Reims in November 1192, the emperor was openly accused of having instigated the crime.
Of Bohemia joined the circle of Henrys enemies, and the southern duchies, Bavaria, Swabia and Austria, were too much occupied with internal quarrels to send help to the harassed emperor.
Of England passed as a prisoner into Henrys keeping, and with rare skill the emperor used him as a means of compelling his enemies to come to terms. Henry the Lion was the last to submit.
After Henrys death the electors, again fearing lest the German crown should become hereditary, refused to choose the late outs the kings young son, John of Bohemia, as their ruler, ~avarian although the candidature of this prince was supported and by the powerful archbishops Baldwin of Trier and Frederick Peter of Mainz.
By making the mirrors of silvered glass, one-fourth of their diameter in thickness, the Henrys have not only `.
Excluded from it by the treaty of Nemours (1585) he began the "war of the three Henrys" by a campaign in Guienne (1586) and defeated Anne, duc de Joyeuse, at Coutras on the 10th of October 1587.
Throughout the time of Henrys Norman war, he was engaged in a tiresome controversy with the primate on the question of lay investitures, the continuation of the struggle which Henrys had begun in his brothers reign.
He also refused to consecrate Henrys nominees to certain bishoprics and abbacies on the ground that they had not been chosen by free election by their chapters or their monks.
Hence the position was one of the highest importance, and Henrys new nobility, the men of ability whom he selected and promoted, found their special occupation in holding the office of sheriff.
It is unnecessary to go into the very uninteresting and unimportan.t history of Henrys later years.
The question of the succession was the main thing which occupied the mind of the king and the whole nation in Henrys later years.
Henrys only son William had been drowned at sea ~n.
Stephen, count of floulogne, the younger brother of Theobald, had landed at Dover within a few days of Henrys death, determined to make a snatch at the crown, though he had been one of the first who had taken the oath to his cousin a few years before.
Hence it came that Henrys ambitions and interests were continental more than English.
Yet once,more Henrys stayon the English side of the Channel was but for a year.
This was to be but the first of many disappointments in this direction; there was apparently some fatal scruple, both in Henrys own mind and in that of his continental subjects, as to pressing their suzerain too hard.
Meanwhile England, though somewhat heavily taxed, was at least enjoying quiet and strong governance~ There is every sign that Henrys early years were a time of returning prosperity.
Between the outbreak of the kings quarrel with Becket at the council of Woodstock and the compromise of Avranches no less than ten years had elapsedthe best years of Henrys manhood.
King Henrys eyes had been fixed on the faction-ridden land since the first years of his reign.
Dermot MacMorrough, king of Leinster, an unquiet Irish prince who for good reasons had been expelled by his neighbors, came to Henrys court in Normandy, proffering his allegiance in return for restoration to his lost dominions.
The best proof that King Henrys orderly if autocratic rgime was appreciated at its true value by his English subjects, is that when the second series of rebellions raised by his undutiful sons began In 1182, there was no stir whatever in England, though in Normandy, Brittany and Aquitaine the barons rose in full force to support the young princes, whose success would mean the triumph of particularism and the destruction of the Angevin empire.
Among the many troubles which broke down King Henrys strdng will and great bodily vigour in those unhappy years, rebellion in England was not one.
It was the discovery of the treachery of, this one child whom he had deemed faithful, and loved over well, that broke Henrys heart.
Even more numerous and no less expensive to the realm were the Provenal and Savoyard relatives of Henrys queen, Eleanor of Provence.
King Henrys personal rule lasted from 1232, the year in which he deprived Hubert de Burgh of his justiciarship and confiscated most of his lands, down to 1258.
It numbered among its leaders the good archbishop, Edmund of Abingdon, and Robert Grosseteste, the active and learned bishop of Lincoln; it was not infrequently aided by the kings brother Richard, earl of Cornwall, who did not share Henrys blind admiration for his foreign relatives.
Though Henrys taxes were vexatious and never-ending, thotigh his subservience to the pope and his flighty interference in foreign politics were ever irritating the magnates condition and the people, and though outbreaks of turbulence of England were not unknown during his long period of personal under rule, it would yet be a mistake to regard the central I~eIIS~ III.
And indeed we may note that the precise word parliament first appears in the chroniclers and in official documents about the middle of Henrys reign.
All these facts make it sufficiently clear that England was irritated rather than crushed by Henrys irregular taxation and thriftless expenditure.
It was a curious commentary on Henrys policy, that Richard, even when dead, did not cease to give him trouble.
External troubles continued to multiply during Henrys earlier years.
In July 1403 came the crisis of King Henrys reign; while Glendower burst into South Wales, and overran the whole Insurrec- countryside as far as Cardiff and Carmarthen, the tion In the Percjes raised their banner in the North.
It was not till 1405 that the worst of Henrys troubles came to an end.
It might have proved even more dangerous than the rebellion of 1403, if Henrys unscrupulous general Ralph, earl of Westmorland, had not lured Scrope and Mowbray to a conference, and then arrested them under circumstances of the vilest treachery.
Long before this last-named fight Henrys fortunes had begun to mend.
The fluctuating influence of each party with the king was marked by the passing of the chancellorship from Arundel to Henry Beaufort and back again during the five years of Henrys illness.
On the 20th of March 1413, King Henrys long illness at last reached a fatal issue, and his eldest son ascended the throne.
The first notable event of Henrys reign was his assault upon the Lollards.
He was engaged in a separate campaign with Henrys Conquest ally John the Fearless, and left Normandy to shift Nor,aandy.
Though the Lancastrians ~ made much play with the watchword of loyalty to the crown, and though the Yorkists never forgot to speak of the need for strong and wise governance, and the welfare of the realm, y~ personal and family enmities had in many cases more effect in determining their action than a zeal for King Henrys rights or for the prosperity of England.
When he was twice placed in power, during the two protectorates which followed YorIc~ Henrys two long fits of insanity in 1454 and 1455-1456, he carefully avoided any oppression of his enemies, though he naturally took care to put his own friends in office.
But the duke of Clarence betrayed to his brother the army which he had gathered in King Henrys name, and Battle of many of the Lancastrians were slow to join the earl, Barnet.
Loyalty was such an uncertain thing that the king might call out great ]evies yet be forced to doubt whether they would fight for himat Stoke Field it seems that a large part of Henrys army misbehaved, much as that of Richard III.