The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
Vermont (vert mont), the Green Mountain State, was so named from the evergreen forests of its mountains, whose principal trees are spruce and fir on the upper slopes and white pine and hemlock on the lower.
Vermont was heavily forested with white pine, spruce and hemlock, and, in the southern part of the state and along the shore of Lake Champlain, with some hard woods.
He was the author of a collection of epigrams called Cicuta (" hemlock") 1 from their bitter sarcasm, and of a beautiful epitaph on the death of Tibullus; of elegiac poems, probably of an erotic character; of an epic poem Amazonis; and of a prose work on wit (De urbanitate).
But mixed with the oak and chestnut or higher up are considerable hickory, birch and maple; farther up the mountain sides are some hemlock and white pine; and on the swamp lands of the Coastal Plain are much cypress and some cedar, and on the Coastal Plain south of the Neuse there is much long-leaf pine from which resin is obtained.
Hemlock Spruce (Tsuga caibu.ac usw).
The hemlock spruce (Tsuga canadensis) is a large tree, abounding in most of the north-eastern parts of America up to Labrador; in lower Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia it is often the prevailing tree.
The hemlock prefers rather dry and elevated situations, often forming woods on the declivities of mountains.
A narrow-gauge railway connects these with Port Penrhyn, at the mouth of the stream Cegid (hemlock, "cicuta"), which admits the entry of vessels of 300 tons to the quay at low water.
In the Adirondack region the trees were principally white pine, spruce, hemlock and balsam, but mixed with these were some birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller numbers of ash and elm; in the swamps of this region were also larch and cedar.
Originally white pine was the principal timber of the Adirondacks, but most of the merchantable portion has been cut, and in 1905 nearly one-half of the lumber product of this section was spruce, the other half mainly hemlock, pine and hardwoods (yellow birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller amounts of elm, cherry and ash).
In the Catskills and in the farming regions the lumber product consists largely of hardwoods (mostly oak, chestnut and hickory), smaller amounts of hemlock and pine, and a very little spruce.
The Puget Sound Basin and the neighbouring slopes of the Cascade and Olympic Mountains are noted for their forests, consisting mainly of giant Douglas fir or Oregon pine (Pseudotsuga Douglasii), but containing also some cedar, spruce and hemlock, a smaller representation of a few other species and a dense undergrowth.
Slope of the Cascades the red fir ceases to be the dominant tree, and between this elevation and the region of perpetual snow, on a few of the highest peaks, rise a succession of forest zones containing principally: (1) yellow pine, red and yellow fir, white fir and cedar; (2) lodgepole pine, white pine, Engelmann spruce and yew; (3) subalpine fir, lovely fir, noble fir, Mertens hemlock, Alaska cedar and tamarack; (4) white-bark pine, Patton hemlock, alpine larch and creeeping juniper.
The most valuable trees for lumber are spruce, white pine, hemlock, cedar, white birch, ash, maple and basswood; all excepting pine and hemlock and poplar in addition are ground into wood pulp for the manufacture of paper.
The prickly ash, Virginian creeper and staff-tree find here their northern limit; and the mountain maple, Canada blueberry, dwarf birch and ground hemlock their southern limit.
Except on the summits of the higher mountains New Hampshire was originally an unbroken forest of which the principal trees were the white pine, hemlock, sugar maple, yellow birch, beech, red oak, and white oak in the S., red spruce, balsam, and white birch on the upper mountain slopes, and red spruce, white pine, sugar maple, white spruce and white cedar in the other parts of the N.
Yellow birch, sugar maple and beech have to a considerable extent supplanted spruce, white pine and hemlock, and that wherever forest fires have occurred there is much bird cherry, yellow birch and aspen.
In the Alleghanian Transition zone the chestnut, walnut, oaks and hickories of the South are interspersed among the beech, birch, hemlock and sugar maple of the North.
The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.
The manufacture of great quantities of coke has resulted from the demand for this product in the iron and steel industry and from the abundance of coking coal; the manufacture of glass has been promoted by the supply of glass sand and natural gas in the west of the state; the manufacture of leather by the abundance of hemlock bark; the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products by the abundance of raw material; the manufacture of silk and silk goods by the large number of women and girls who came into the state in families of which the men and boys were employed in mining and picking anthracite coal; and in each of these industries as well as in a few others the state has for many years produced a large portion of the country's product.
Above the firs come the tamarack, constituting the bulk of the lower Alpine forest; the hardy long-lived mountain pine; the red cedar or juniper, growing even on the baldest rocks; the beautiful hemlock spruce; the still higher white pine, nut pine, needle pine; and finally, at io,000 to 12,000 ft., the dwarf pine, which grows in a tangle on the earth over which one walks, and may not show for a century's growth more than a foot of height or an inch of girth.
The Blue Ridge and Newer Appalachian regions are covered with pine, hemlock, white oak, cherry and yellow poplar; while that portion of these provinces lying in the S.W.
The timber area originally comprised three divisions: the mountain regions growing pine and hard woods and hemlock; the Piedmont region producing chiefly oaks with some pine; and the lands below the "Fall Line," which were forested with yellow pine.
The principal trees, after the yellow and lodgepole pines, are the red-fir, so-called hemlock and cedar, the Engelmann spruce, the cottonwood and the aspen (Populus tremuloides).
He had soaked hemlock leaves in water and drank it, and thought that was better than water in warm weather.