In the Hellenistic period it gained inportance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia on topics related to the Hellenistic period.
All the Hellenistic courts felt it a great part of prestige to be filled with the light of Hellenic culture.
It was thus that when Rome became a world-empire, it found to some extent the forms of government ready made, and took over from the Hellenistic monarchies a tradition which it handed on to the later world.
The greatest monument, however, of the Hellenistic period is the colossal Olympieum or temple of Olympian Zeus, " unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei " (Livy The 01 m- xli.
In the Hellenistic period Corcyra was exposed to attack from several sides; after a vain siege by Cassander it was occupied in turn by Agathocles and Pyrrhus.
From 970 to 772 B.C. the bare outline of events is supplied by extracts from two Hellenistic historians, Menander of Ephesus and Dius (largely dependent upon Menander), which have been preserved by Josephus, Ant.
The Hellenistic The embellishments which the city received during period: the Hellenistic and Roman periods were no longer the artistic expression of the religious and political life of ment of the city: Attalus I.
At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.
The Hellenistic monarchies rested, as all government in the last resort must, upon the loyalty of those who wielded the brute force of the state, and however unlimited the powers of the king might be in theory, he could not alienate the goodwill of the army with impunity.
3, 8); but, whereas, that had been an imposing erection, the Hellenistic diadem was a simple riband.
There were other traces in the Hellenistic courts of the old Macedonian tradition besides in dress.
The values recognized in the great Hellenistic courts and the Greek world generally imposed their authority upon the dynasties of barbarian origin.
Thenceforward, in the Hellenistic kingdoms of the East the worship of the living sovereign became the rule, although it appears to have been regarded as given in anticipation of an apotheosis which did not become actual till death.
There does not seem any clear proof that the surnames which the Hellenistic kings in Asia and Egypt bore were necessarily connected with the cult, even if they were used to describe g.Surnames.
For the Hellenistic armies and fleets see A.
A masterly conspectus of the general character of the Hellenistic kingdoms in their political, economic and social character, their artistic and intellectual culture is given by Beloch, Griech.
Eregli in the vilayet of Konia), under the name Cybistra, had some importance in Hellenistic times owing to its position near the point where the road to the Cilician Gates enters the hills.
Hellenistic Jewish Literature: Historical and Legendary.
70 in Greek by an orthodox Hellenistic Jew, who lived in Egypt.
The doctrines of this school were a fusion of Eastern and Western thought, and combined in varying proportions the elements of Hellenistic and Jewish philosophy.
Thus the Hellenistic doctrine of personal revelation could be combined with the Jewish tradition of a complete theology revealed to a special people.
Now from Philo to Origen we have a long Hellenistic, Jewish and Christian application of that all-embracing allegorism, where one thing stands for another and where no factual details resist resolution into a symbol of religious ideas and forces.
Even if first trained in the Hellenistic synagogues of the Dispersion, as was often the case, they apprehended the Law on its more helpful and less exacting side, and had not been brought "by the Law to die unto the Law," that they might "live unto God."
'SYNAGOGUE OF THE LIBERTINES, a section of the Hellenistic Jews who attacked Stephen (Acts vi.
Its slavish adherence to the original caused the new translation to be received with favour by the Hellenistic Jews, among whom it quickly superseded the older Septuagint.
Their main duty was to look after the duty of the Hellenistic widows, but inasmuch as meats strangled or consecrated to idols were forbidden, it probably devolved on the deacons to take care that such were not introduced at these common meals.
The still later form of the legend, a product of the Hellenistic period, is due to a mistaken etymology of the name.
The whole Hellenistic culture of the epistle (let alone its language), and the personal references in it, notably that to Timothy in xiii.
Many attempts have been made to identify the home of the Hellenistic Christians addressed in this epistle.
It is improbable that cuneiform and the Babylonion language continued to be used in Mesopotamia during the Hellenistic period, as it did in Babylonia, where it was certainly written as late as the last century B.C.;1 and may have been a learned language till the second Christian century.
2 Unfortunately there are no native documents from the pre-Christian Hellenistic period.
It may be ascribed partly to the wealth and influence acquired by Aetolian mercenaries in Hellenistic courts, but chiefly to the formation of a national Aetolian league, the first effective institution of this kind in Greece.
Gr eek culture had, however, both in " Hellenic " and " Hellenistic " times, a common essence, just as light is light whether in the original luminous body or in a reflection, and to describe this by the term Hellenism seems most natural.
The expansion of Levantine trade which ensued in the Hellenistic age brought especial profit to Rhodes, whose standard of coinage and maritime law became widely accepted in the Mediterranean.
Speculations about the Perso-Hellenistic Mithras appear to have been transferred to the Gnostic Abraxas.
And he did not realize the importance of the kinship between Christian doctrine and Hellenistic syncretism, which helped to promote the reception of Christianity.
The Hellenistic armies weredistinguished by their external magnificence.
Native cults the Hellenistic kings thought it good policy to patronize.
1-4, it is Hellenistic; at others, as in i.
The revival of Greek from the time of Chrysoloras onward, instead of begetting a Hellenistic spirit, transported the more serious-minded to the nebulous shores of NeoPlatonism, while the less devout became absorbed in scholarly or literary ambitions, translations, elegantly phrased letters, clever epigrams or indiscriminate invective.
With the extension of the single strong rule of Rome over this Hellenistic world, the conditions were changed.
With this long process of political decline from Alexander to Diocletian correspond the inner changes in the temper of the Hellenic and Hellenistic peoples.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
The chief success of the government lay in the field of foreign politics, where it prudently avoided entanglement in the ambitious schemes of Hellenistic monarchs, but gained great prestige by energetic interference against aggressors who threatened the existing balance of power or the security of the seas.
- This dispersion of the Jews had begun in the Hellenistic period, but it was after the Barcochebas war that it assumed great dimensions in Europe.
But the greater part of the empire continued to exist under new masters, the Seleucids, as a Hellenistic power which was of great importance for the dissemination of Greek culture in the East.
Wace, "Hellenistic Royal Portraits," Journ.
The Phaleric wall, proving indefensible, was abandoned towards the close of the Peloponnesian war; with the other two walls it was completely destroyed after the surrender of the city, and was not rebuilt when they were restored by Conon in 393 B.C. The parallel walls fell into decay, during the Hellenistic period, and according to Strabo (ix.
(3) The Hellenistic and Roman periods: J.
61), was literally the principle of the new Hellenistic monarchies in the East.
The nymphaea of the Roman period were borrowed from the constructions of the Hellenistic east.
On Jewish tombstones of the Hellenistic period the title is frequently found, sometimes applied to women.
Rome, when it stepped into their place, did no more than safeguard its continuance; in the East Rome acted as a Hellenistic power, and if, when the legions had thundered past, the brooding East " plunged in thought again," that thought was largely directed by the Greek schoolmaster who followed in the legions' train.
If indeed the earlier ages had been those of creative and spontaneous life, the Hellenistic age was that of conscious criticism and book-learning.
Under the Roman empire the cult of Isis, now furnished with an official priesthood and elaborate ritual, became really popular in the Hellenistic world.
The Cappadocian court admitted the full stream of Hellenistic culture under Ariarathes V.