Such slight notices in Western literature do not give us any penetrating view into the operation of Hellenism among the Iranians.
The `EAXnvucwv OEpairEvruo lraen,uhTwv (De Curandis Graecorum Affectionibus) - written before 438 - is of an historical and apologetic character, very largely indebted to Clement of Alexandria and Eusebius; it aims at showing the advantages of Christianity as compared with " the moribund but still militant " Hellenism of the day, and deals with the assaults of pagan adversaries.
Soter tried to introduce Hellenism into Persis.
The coins demonstrate that Hellenism had become quite extinct in Persis, while the old historical and mythical traditions and the Zoroastrian religion were supreme.
70 concludes the period of four centuries, during which the Jews as a nation were in contact with the Greeks and exposed to the influence of Hellenism, not wholly of their own will nor yet against it.
An Athenian came to be the missionary of Hellenism and to direct its ceremonies, which were established by force up and down the country.
In the country-side of Judaea, Judaism - and no longer Hellenism - was propagated by force.
But that ability was largely due to his whole-hearted Hellenism, which was shown by the Greek cities which he founded in Palestine and the buildings he erected in Jerusalem.
The influence of Hellenism over them is shown by finds in the tombs and the fact that they spoke the Greek language as well as their own (bilingues in Ennius).
He spent lavishly on public buildings at home and in the older centres of Hellenism, like Athens.
How anxious the Pergamene kings, with their ardent Hellenism, were to avoid offence is shown by the elaborate forms by which, in their own capital, they sought to give their real control the appearance of popular freedom (Cardinali, Regno di Pergamo, p. 281 seq.).
P. Mahaffy, Ale x ander's Empire (" Stories of the Nations Series "); Progress of Hellenism in Alexander's Empire (1905) The Silver Age of the Greek World (1906).
It was a centre not only of Hellenism but of Semitism, and the greatest Jewish city in the world.
Both of these powers were interested in preventing any possible accession of territory to the Bulgarian kingdom; and Rumania (q.v.) had for many years been a formidable opponent of Hellenism among the Macedonian Vlachs.
All in all the study of oriental costume down to the days of Hellenism proves to be something more than that of mere apparel, and any close survey of the evidence speedily raises questions which concern old oriental history and thought.
As in glyptic so in poetic art, the Hellenism of the time was decadent and Alexandrine rather than Attic of the best period.
The time was come for Philip to assert himself in Greece, and the Phocians, who still dominated Delphi and held Thermopylae, could furnish a pretext to the champion of Pan-Hellenism and Apollo.
A new-born Hellenism, or divine cultus of beauty presented itself before his inspired soul."
They were present when the believers in Mahomet held sway in the Asiatic and African provinces which Alexander had once brought under the intellectual influence of Hellenism; while the Lombards, the West Goths, the Franks and the AngloSaxons had established kingdoms in Italy, Spain, Gaul and Britain.
It suffered severely from the earthquake of the 16th-17th of January 188g, It is a prosperous place with an enlightened Greek element in its population (hence the numerous families called "Spartali" in Levantine towns); and it is, in fact, the chief inland colony of Hellenism in Anatolia.
There, under the monuments of its glorious past, Hellenism found its last retreat.
The works of Proclus, as the last testament of Hellenism to the church and the middle ages, exerted an incalculable influence on the next thousand years.
In the rustic parts a knowledge of Greek begins to spread in the 3 rd century; but only in the 4th and 5th centuries, after the transference of the centre of government first to Nicomedia and then to Constantinople placed Galatia on the highway of imperial communication, was Hellenism in its Christian form gradually diffused over the country.
For the later periods see PERSIA: History; HELLENISM; ROME: History; PARTHIA; SYRIAC LITERATURE; CALIPHATE and authorities there given.
Besides Tyndaris and Tauromenium, the foundation of Halaca marks another step in Sicel progress towards Hellenism, while the Carthaginians founded their strong town and fortress of Lilybaeum in place of Motya.
The term " Hellenism " is ambiguous.
Gr eek culture had, however, both in " Hellenic " and " Hellenistic " times, a common essence, just as light is light whether in the original luminous body or in a reflection, and to describe this by the term Hellenism seems most natural.
But whilst using the term in the larger sense, this article, in deference to the associations which have come to be specially connected with it, will devote its principal attention to Hellenism as it appeared in the world after the Macedonian conquests.
But it will be first necessary to indicate briefly what Hellenism in itself implied.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.
It was not till the great colonizing epoch of the 8th and 7th centuries B.C., when the name " Hellene " came into use as the antithesis of " barbarian," that the Greek race came to be conscious of itself as a peculiar people; it was yet some three centuries more before Hellenism stood fully declared in art and literature, in politics and in thought.
THE Expansion Of Hellenism Before Alexander.
Already in the 7th century B.C., when Hellenism was still in a rudimentary stage, the citizens of the Greek city-states had been known to the courts of Babylon and Egypt as admirable soldiers, combining hardihood with discipline, and Greek mercenaries came to be in request throughout the Nearer East.
But as Hellenism developed, its social and intellectual life began to exercise a power of attraction.
In some cases an outlying colony would coalesce with a native population, and a fusion of Hellenism with barbarian customs take place, as at Emporium in Spain (Strabo iii.
In Athens the Hellenic genius was focussed, its tendencies drawn together and combined; nor was it a circumstance of small moment that the Attic dialect attained, for prose, a classical authority; for if Hellenism was to be propagated in the world at large, it was obviously convenient that it should have some one definite form of speech to be its medium.
The Phoenician element seems to have been dominant in the island when Evagoras made himself king of Salamis in 412, and restored Hellenism with a strong hand.
§§ 49, 50) Even into the original seats of the Phoenicians Hellenism began to intrude.
- When we review generally the extent to which Hellenism had penetrated the outer world in the middle of the 4th century B.e., it must be admitted that it had not seriously affected any but the more primitive races which dwelt upon the borders of the Hellenic lands, and here it would seem, with the doubtful exception of the Macedonians, to have been an affair rather of the courts than of the life of the people.
On the other hand it must be taken into account that Hellenism had as yet only been a very short while in the world.
Greek culture had been the product of the city-state, and Hellenism could not be dissevered from the city.
From our present point of view we may therefore regard this work of Hellenism as one continuous process, initiated by the Macedonians and carried on under Roman protection, and ask in the first place what the institution of a Greek city implied.
The process by which Hellenism thus leavened an older city we may trace with peculiar vividness in the case of Jerusalem; we see there the younger generation captivated by its ideals, the appearance of gymnasium and theatre, the eager adoption of Greek political forms (1 Mace.
Characteristics of Hellenism after Alexander.
Hellenism had been the product of the free life of the Greek city-state, and after Chaeronea the great days of the city-state were past.
Just as the Macedonian conquest, whilst increasing the domain of Greek culture, had straitened Greek liberty, so Rome, whilst bringing Hellenism finally into secure possession of the nearer East, extinguished Greek freedom altogether.
The inter-action of Christianity and Hellenism opens large fields of inquiry.
- Hellenism secured by the Macedonian conquest points d'appui from the Mediterranean to India, and brought the system of commerce and intercourse into Greek hands.
What influence did Hellenism during the centuries in which it was in contact with India exert upon the native mind?
If certain statements of classical authors were true, Hellenism in India flourished exceedingly.
Tarn, " Notes on Hellenism in Bactria and India " in Journ.
The history of these Greek dynasties is for us almost a blank, and for estimating the amount and quality of Hellenism in Bactria during the 180 years or so of Macedonian and Greek rule, we are reduced to building hypotheses upon the scantiest data.
Xxii., 1902, p. 268 f.), and his result is mainly negative, that palpable evidences of an active Hellenism have not been found; he inclines to think that the Greek kingdoms mainly took on the native Iranian colour.
In Babylonia, also, in Susiana and Mesopotamia, Hellenism had been established in a system of cities for 200 years before the coming of the Parthian.
This single instance need not, it is true, show a Hellenism of any profundity; still it does show that certain parts of Hellenism had become so essential to the lustre of a court that even an Arsacid could not be without them.
It is enough then here to observe that Iran and Babylonia do, as a matter of fact, continually yield the explorer objects of workmanship either Greek or influenced by Greek models, belonging to the age after Alexander, and that we may hence infer at any rate such an influence of Hellenism upon the tastes of the richer classes as would create a demand for these things.
If any vestige of Hellenism still survived under the Sassanian kings, our records do not show it.
But the account of Chosroes' mode of action makes it plain that the Hellenism once planted in Iran had withered away; representatives of Greek learning and skill have all to be imported from across the frontier.
For Hellenism in Babylonia and Iran, see the useful article of M.
- Very different were the fortunes of Hellenism in those lands which became annexed to the Roman Empire.
See also HELLENISM; PTOLEMIES; SELEUCID DYNASTY.
HELLENISM (from Gr.
But by the courts alone Hellenism could never have been propagated far.