In the organization of the administrative machinery of these kingdoms, the higher power of the Hellene to adapt and combine had been operative; they were organisms of a richer, more complex type than the East had hitherto known.
It certainly maintained strong Phoenician sympathies, for it was its refusal to join the phil-Hellene league of Onesilas of Salamis which provoked the revolt of Cyprus from Persia in 500-494 B.C. (Herod.
The phil-Hellene Evagoras of Salamis was similarly opposed by Amathus about 385-380 B.C. in conjunction with Citium and Soli (Diod.
It is at this stage that the Dorians are regarded as becoming specifically distinct from the generic " Hellene ": thence (3) to a residence " in Pindus," where they passed as a " Macedonian people."
It was not till the great colonizing epoch of the 8th and 7th centuries B.C., when the name " Hellene " came into use as the antithesis of " barbarian," that the Greek race came to be conscious of itself as a peculiar people; it was yet some three centuries more before Hellenism stood fully declared in art and literature, in politics and in thought.
On the whole, then, the most tenable theory is that the writer of the " we " sections was also the author of Acts; and that he was Luke, Paul's companion during most of his later ministry, and also his " counterpart," "as a Hellene, who yet had personal sympathy with Jewish primitive Christianity " (Harnack, op. cit.
For the failure of Assyria in Egypt in 668-664, and the revival of Egypt as a phil-Hellene state under the XXVIth Dynasty, admitted strong GraecoEgyptian influences in industry and art, and led about 560 B.C. to the political conquest of Cyprus by Amasis (Ahmosi) II.; once again Cypriote timber maintained a foreign sea-power in the Levant.
1 Among the best known representatives of the schools are Rabban (a title given to Hillel's descendants) Gamaliel, the Phil-Hellene and teacher of the apostle Paul (Acts xxii.
But the vital point is that the absolute superiority of the Hellene was recognized as incontestable on both hands.
In the first place, his pre-eminence is obviously pre-Homeric; for Homer was no preacher or innovator in religion, but gives us some at least of the primary facts of the contemporary religious beliefs prevailing about woo B.C.: and he attests for us the supremacy of Zeus as a belief which was unquestioned by the average Hellene of the time; and appreciating how slow was the process of religious change in the earlier period, we shall believe that the god had won this position long before the Homeric age.