A passage in Ferishta seems to imply that the Afghans in the Sulimani mountains were already known by that name in the first century of the Hegira, but it is uncertain how far this may be built on.
`Abd el-Razzaq's report to the government of India on the pilgrimage of 1858 is specially directed to sanitary questions; C. Snouck-Hurgronje, Mekka (2 vols., and a collection of photographs, The Hague, 1888-1889), gives a description of the Meccan sanctuary and of the public and private life of the Meccans as observed by the author during a sojourn in the holy city in1884-1885and a political history of Mecca from native sources from the Hegira till 1884.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
On the Arab invasion this work was in great danger of perishing at the hands of the iconclastic caliph Omar and his generals, but it was fortunately preserved; and we find it in the 2nd century of the Hegira being paraphrased in Arabic by Abdallah ibn el Mokaffa, a learned Persian who had embraced Islam.
His "Book of Kings" was completed in the year 260 of the Hegira, and was freely circulated in Khorasan and Irak.
For a thousand years, from the Hegira in 622 to the siege of Vienna in 1683, the peril of a Mahommedan conquest of Europe was almost continually present.
- Within fifteen years of the Hegira Jerusalem fell before the arms of Omar (637), and it continued to remain in the hands of Mahommedan rulers till the end of the First Crusade.
The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.
It is stated by D'Herbelot that the era of the Hegira was instituted by Omar, the second caliph, in imitation of the Christian era of the martyrs.
Quite recently a very interesting MS., probably of the 6th century of the Hegira, but not dated, has come to light.
The Years Of The Hegira Are Purely Lunar, And Always Consist Of Twelve Lunar Months, Commencing With The Approximate New Moon, Without Any Intercalation To Keep Them To The Same Season With Respect To The Sun, So That They Retrograde Through All The Seasons In About 321 Years.
141 Y ` 30 J W' And The Same Up To The Year /11 Y 31 Y 1 J 30 W' To Find The Day Of The Week On Which Any Year Of The Hegira Begins, We Observe That The Year 1' Began On A Friday, And That After Every Common Year Of 354 Days, Or 50 Weeks And 4 Days, The Day Of The Week Must Necessarily Become Postponed 4 Days, Besides The Additional Day Of Each Intercalary Year.
This Formula Gives The Following Rule For Calculating The Date Of The Commencement Of Any Year Of The Hegira, According To The Gregorian Or New Style.
Multiply 970224 By The Year Of The Hegira, Cut Off Six Decimals From The Product, And Add 621.5774.
Required The Date On Which The Year 1362 Of The Hegira Begins.
To Find, As A Test, The Accurate Day Of The Week, The Proposed Year Of The Hegira, Divided By 30, Gives 45 Cycles, And Remainder 12, The Year Of The Current Cycle.
To find from this table the day of the week on which any year of the Hegira commences, the rule to be observed will be as follows: Rule.
- Divide the year of the Hegira by 30; the quotient is the number of cycles, and the remainder is the year of the current cycle.
For the computation of the Christian date, the ratio of a mean year of the Hegira to a solar year is Year of Hegira 354s =0.970224.
Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
Quite a different turn was taken by the ambition of another class of imitators of Firdousl, especially during the last four centuries of the Hegira, who tried to create a new ~
This favorite story was treated again by FasihI JurjanI (5th century of the Hegira), and by many modern poets as Damiri, who died under the ~afawI shah Mahommed (1577 1586; 985994 A.H.), Nmi, the historiographer of the Zand dynasty, and Uosain of Shiraz under Fatl~ All Shah, the last two flourishing towards the beginning of the present century.
Salman (under Sultan Ibrahim, 1059 1099) had successfully continued, reached its perfection in the famous group of panegyrists who gathered in the first half of the 6th century of the Hegira round the throne of Sultan Sinjar, and partly also round that of his great antagonist, Atsiz, shah of Khwarizm.
Fruitful as the 6th and 7th centuries of the Hegira were in panegyrics, they attained an equally high standard in didactic and mystic poetry.
1534; 941 A.H.), who himself was imitated by Damiri of Isfahan, Mulitasham Kashi and Wahshi Bfiki (all three died in the last decade of the 10th century of the Hegira); Ahli of Shirgz (d.
It was invaded by the Arabs as early as the thirty-fifth year of the Hegira, but it was long before the Mahommedans effected any lasting settlement.
Now, on the contrary, the pilgrim is expected to follow as closely as may be the movements of the prophet at his "farewell pilgrimage" in the year io of the Hegira (A.D.
In the north-west corner of the mosque is the tomb of Sidi Okba, the leader of the Arabs who in the 1st century of the Hegira conquered Africa for Islam from Egypt to Tangier.
1610; 1019 A.H.), who wrote the charming romance of a Hindu princess who burned herself in Akbars reign with her deceased husband on the funeral pile, called Suz u Gudaz, or Burning and Melting, &c. Among the immediate predecessors of Uafi~ in the 8th century of the Hegira, in which also Ibn Yamin, the great l~ita-writer,i flourished, the highest fame was gained by the two poets of Delhi, Amir IJasan and AmIr Khosrau.
For the first five centuries of the Hegira compare Eths editions and metrical translations of Rudagis Vorlhufer und Zeitgenossen, in Morgenlandische Forschungen (Leipzig, 1875); of Kisis songs, Firdousis lyrics, and Ab Said b.
The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E.