Suggested two centuries ago by Robert Hooke, this use of fossils has in the hands of Barrande, Neumayr, the marquis de Saporta (1895), Oswald Heer (1809-1883), and an army of followers developed into a sub-science of vast importance and interest.
Many scholars connect the origin of the deity with the popular German and Swedish belief in a raging host (in Germany called das wiitende Heer or Wutes Heer, but in Sweden Odens Jagt), which passes through the forests on stormy nights.
Hem heer anoon: Sol gold is, and Luna silver we threpe, Mars yren, Mercurie quik-silver we clepe, Saturnus leed and Jupiter is tin, And Venus coper, by my fader kin!
It is, however, likely that this formation occurs in Greenland, for in Dana Bay, Captain Feilden found a species of Spirifera and Productus mesolobus or costatus, though it is possible that these fossils represent the " Ursa stage " (Heer) of the Lower Carboniferous.
Heer, an army, and bergen, shelter or defence, cf.
Philips Van Marnix, Heer Van St Aldegonde >>
(von Rohden); Heer, "Der historische Wert des Vita Commodi" (Philologus, Supplementband ix.).
Bullinger (1875); Justus Heer, in Hauck's Realencyklopadie (1897).
Among others who contributed valuable papers on the subject may be noticed Oswald Heer (1809-1883), who made observations on the Miocene flora, especially in Arctic regions; Gaston de Saporta (1823-1895), who examined the Tertiary flora; Sir J.
The brilliant theories of the palaeobotanist, Oswald Heer, as to the extension of a sub-tropical climate to Europe and even to extreme northern latitudes in Tertiary time, which have appealed to the imagination and found their way so widely into literature, are now challenged by J.
PHILIPS VAN MARNIX, HEER VAN ST ALDEGONDE (1538-1598), Dutch writer and statesman, was born at Brussels, the son of Jacob van Marnix, baron of Pottes.
Quinet, Marnix de St Aldegonde (Paris, 1854); Juste, Vie de Marnix (The Hague, 1858); Fredericq, Marnix en zijne nederlandsche geschriften (Ghent, 1882); Tjalma, Philips van Marnix, heer van Sint-Aldegonde (Amsterdam, 1896).
C. Heer, Vorarlberg and Liechtenstein - Land and Leute (Feldkirch, 1906); O.
C. Heer, Vorarlberg and Liechtenstein (Feldkirch, 1906); P. Kaiser, Geschichte d.
Christ, Das Pflanzenleben der Schweiz (1882) - the chief classic on the subject; Engler, Die Pflanzenformationen and die pflanzengeographische Gliederung der Alpenkette (1901); Heer, Ueber die nivale Flora der Schweiz (1885); Jerosch, Geschichte and Herkunft der schweizerischen Alpenflora; eine Ubersicht fiber den gegenwartigen Stand der Frage (1903); Schroter, Das Pflanzenleben der Alpen (Zurich, 1908); R.
Gewisselt tusschen den Heer Johan de Witt ...
Heer, Der historische Wert der Vita Commodi in der Sammlung der Scriptores Historiae Augustae (1901); C. Lecrivain, Etudes sur l'histoire Auguste (1904); E.
The name is of uncertain origin; some derive it from lolium, tares, quoting Chaucer (C. Shipman's Prologue) "This Loller heer wil prechen us somwhat..
Busolt, "Spartas Heer and Leuktra," in Hermes (1905), xl.
Dienaar Johan Francken (1620); Historie van het leven en sterven van den Heer Johan van Olden Barneveldt (1648); Groen van Prinsterer, Maurice et Barneveldt (1875); J.
One large specimen is figured by Heer from Lower Cretaceous rocks of Greenland, and by the side of the frond is shown a carpel with lateral ovules, as in the female flower of Cycas; but an examination of the type-specimen in the Copenhagen Museum led the present writer to regard this supposed carpel as valueless.
(A, after Yokoyama; B, after Nathorst; C, D, after Heer; E.
Some of the best examples of cones and twigs referred to Sequoia are those described by Heer from Cretaceous rocks of Greenland, and Professor D.
1) which lies immediately beneath Upper Cretaceous strata with marine fossils, contains a flora so like that of the Tertiary deposits that only the clearest geological evidence has been considered sufficient to prove that Heer was wrong when he spoke of the plants as Miocene.
Heer described from this deposit at Moletein 13 genera, of which 7 are still living, containing 18 species, viz.: 1 fern, 4 Conifers, I palm, 2 figs, 1 Credneria, 2 laurels, I Aralia, Chondrophyllum (of uncertain affinities), 2 magnolias, 2 species of Myrtaceae and a species of walnut.
Besides the Lower Cretaceous plants already mentioned, Heer has described from Greenland a flora of Cenomanian age, and another belonging to the Senonian.
The lignite deposits and pipe-clays of Bovey Tracey in Devon, referred by Heer and Pengelly to the Miocene period, were considered by Gardner to be of the same age as the Bournemouth beds (Middle Eocene).
Among the characteristics of this Miocene flora are the large number of families represented, the marked increase in the deciduous-leaved plants, the gradual decrease in the number of palms and of tropical plants, and the replacement of these latter by Mediterranean or North American forms. According to Heer, the tropical forms in the Swiss Miocene agree rather with Asiatic types, while the subtropical and temperate plants are allied to forms now living in the temperate zone in North America.
Of the 920 species described by Heer, 114 are Cryptogams and 806 flowering plants.
Mosses are extremely rare, Heer only describing 3 species.
The Proteaceae, according to Heer, are still common, the Australian genera Hakea, Dryandra, Grevillea and Banksia, being represented.
These were described by Heer, who referred them to the Miocene period; he recognized, Arctic in fact, two periods during which Angiosperms flourished within the Arctic regions, the one Upper Cretaceous, the other Miocene.
78° in Spitsbergen Heer records 136 species of fossil plants.
Heer, Flora tertiaria Helvetiae (3 vols., Winterthur, 18 5518 59); Flora fossilis arctica (7 vols., Zurich, 1868-1883), " Beitrage zur Kreideflora, - (1) Flora von Moletein in Maren," Neue Denkschr.
Heer records one species of rice and four of millet.