Large holdings of at least 500 hectares (a hectare equals about 22 acres) are indispensable to the profitable pursuit of extensive agriculture.
In 1902 it was officially estimated that the public land available for permanent agrarian cultivation, including forest lands, was only 186,967 hectares (416,995 acres), almost wholly in the province of Oriente.
The state of war with Soviet Russia, however, continued until the Peace Treaty of July 12 1920, whereunder the Lithuanian claim to Vilna and Grodno was recognized by the Bolsheviks and Lithuania received three million rubles in gold and 100,000 hectares of forest land for exploitation.
Of the last-named class 30% owned less than 3 hectares, 60% from 10-50 hectares, 3% from 3-to hectares, 5% from 50-100 hectares, while 17% of all the villagers were landless.
In 1920 the territory administered by the Lithuanian Government (5,200,000 hectares out of 8,500,000 hectares) yielded As regards live-stock raising there were in 1920 in the same area: Forests.
It gives the State the right to " take " (seize) and distribute estates in so far as they exceed 150 hectares (370 ac.) of arable land or 250 hectares (617 ac.) of land of any kind.
For the purchase and distribution of the land a " State Land Office" has been set up. A share in the distribution may be claimed on the one hand by private persons to the amount of 15 hectares (37 ac.) - the amount suitable for cultivation by one family; on the other hand by agricultural, housing and cooperative societies.
This Land Act was to be carried out in a series of successive periods, during the first of which only estates over 5,000 hectares (12,350 ac.) would be affected.
The power of the pumping-engines is taken on the basis of 12 h.p. per moo hectares for every metre that the water has to be raised, or stated in another form, the engines must be capable of raising nearly 9 lb of water through I yd.
During the years in which the soil is allowed to lie fallow, the grass and weeds which spring up serve as pasture for cattle, but the poverty of the pasture is such that at least two hectares are required for the maintenance of every animal.
The present output amounts to roughly 150 million gallons, and the acreage under the vine has increased from 107,048 hectares in 1890 to 167,657 hectares in 1905.