The heartwood varies in colour from dark brown to pale yellowishbrown; hard, close-grained, and little liable to split accidentally, it is, for a hard wood, easy to work.
A variety of the spruce, abounding in some parts of Nor way, produces a red heartwood, not easy to distinguish from that of the Norway B pine (Scotch fir), and imported with it into England as "red deal" or "pine."
The timber is not of great value, but the heartwood is dense and of deeper colour than that of S.
The larch, from its lofty straight trunk and the high quality of its wood, is one of the most important of coniferous trees; its growth is extremely rapid, the stem attaining a large size in from sixty to eighty years, while the tree yields good useful timber at forty or fifty; it forms firm heartwood at an early age, and the sapwood is less perishable than that of the firs, rendering it more valuable in the young state.
Should be converted economical method, but, as will be seen in the diagram, the quality of the boards will vary very much, some consisting almost entirely of sap-wood cut at a tangent to the annular rings such as a, b, c, whilst the centre boards contain the heartwood cut in the best way at right angles across the annual rings as d, e, f.
The heartwood of the finer kinds of Scotch fir is of a deep brownish-red colour, abounding in the resin to which its durability is probably due.
The wood when young is white, but old heartwood is yellow or brownish.