The ancient offices pertaining to the village, as those of the headmen (patel), the village accountant, &c., are in working order throughout the Mahratta country.
The first was retained by the leaders who still carried on the struggle for liberty in Montenegro; the second was transferred to the headmen of the communes.
In the magistracies the authority of the chiefs and indumas (headmen) is exercised under the control of resident magistrates.
Finally, there are the village headmen, assisted in Upper Burma by elders, variously designated according to old custom.
Similarly in the towns, there are headmen of wards and elders of blocks.
In Upper Burma these headmen have always been revenue collectors.
The system under which in towns headmen of wards and elders of blocks are appointed is of comparatively recent origin, and is modelled on the village system.
The island became a British protectorate on the 10th of April 1900, and was made a dependency of New Zealand in October 1900, the native government, of an elected "king" and a council of headmen, being maintained.
Each muang is subdivided into ampurs under assistant commissioners, and these again are divided into village circles under headmen (kamnans), which circles comprise villages under the control of elders.
Under them are village headmen or tso-piin, headmen or mi-pan, and elders or gyan-po.
At this point Bower was stopped by some of the headmen of the Tibetan pastoral tribes (here under the rule of Lhasa), and obliged to make a long circuit to the north well out of Lhasa territory, and then eastward - till he struck the road to Chiamdo through Gyade or Chinese Tibet.
As in India, the village with its lands and cultivation was constituted the unit of assessment, and the provinces were divided into districts under native headmen responsible for the collection of the tax, and its payment to the paramount chief, who in turn rendered the assigned share to district and village chiefs, to the officers of state recognized by government and to the government itself.
The regional commissioners and the political residents act either by means of the village headmen (Shum or Chicca), by the chiefs of districts in the few localities where villages are still organized in districts, or by the headmen of tribes, and by the councils of the elders wherever these remain.
Civil justice for natives is administered, in the first instance, by the headmen of villages, provinces, tribes, or by councils of notables (Shumagalle); in appeal, by the residents and regional tribunals, and, in the last instance, by the colonial court of appeal.
But in Kufa peace was restored, and this not by military force, but by the headmen of the tribes.
It is specially borne by heads of religious orders, chiefs of tribes and ' headmen of villages.