Pop. (1890) 22,907; (1900) 39,306, of whom 24,746 were males, 14,560 were females; about 10,000 were Hawaiians, 15,000 were Asiatics, and about 5000 were Portuguese.
Honolulu has other parks, a fine Botanical Garden, created by the Bureau of Agriculture, several public squares, several hospitals, a maternity home, the Lunalilo Home for aged Hawaiians, an asylum for the insane, several schools of high rank both public and private - notably Oahu College on the E.
Since the Rev. William Ellis and a party of American missionaries first made the volcano known to the civilized ' Among the minqr phenomena of Hawaiian volcanoes are the delicate glassy fibres called Pele's hair by the Hawaiians, which are spun by the wind from the rising and falling drops of liquid lava, and blown over the edge or into the crevices of the crater.
The surface of the upper slopes of Mauna Loa is almost wholly of two widely different kinds of barren lava-flows, called by the Hawaiians the pahoehoe and the aa.
The governor's estimate for 1908 was 170,000 (72,000 Japanese, 18,000 Chinese, 5000 Koreans, 23,000 Portuguese, 2000 Spanish, 2000 Porto Ricans, 35,000 Hawaiians and part Hawaiians and 12,000 Teutons).
About threefifths of the Hawaiians and nearly all of American, British or North European descent are Protestants.
Most of the Portuguese and about one-third of the native Hawaiians are Roman Catholics.
The aboriginal Hawaiians (sometimes called Kanakas, from a Hawaiian word kanaka, meaning " man ") belong to the Malayo-Polynesian race; they probably settled in Native Hawaii in the 10th century, having formerly lived in popula- Samoa, and possibly before that in Tahiti and the Marquesas.
The Hawaiians are a good-tempered, light-hearted and pleasure-loving race.
The Hawaiian language is a member of the widely-diffused Malayo-Polynesian group and closely resembles the dialect of the Marquesas; Hawaiians and New Zealanders, although occupying the most remote regions north and south at which the race has been found, can understand each other without much difficulty.
Persistent efforts have also been made to introduce Polynesian islanders, as being of a cognate race with the Hawaiians, but the results have been wholly unsatisfactory.
On the 31st of March 1820 missionaries of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions - two clergymen, two teachers, a physician, a farmer, and a printer, each with his wife - and three Hawaiians educated in the Cornwall (Connecticut) Foreign Missionary School, arrived from America and began their labours at Honolulu.
Among the measures urged by the king and opposed by the Reform party were the project of a ten-million dollar loan, chiefly for military purposes; the removal of the prohibition of the sale of alcoholic liquor to Hawaiians, which was carried in 1882; the licensing of the sale of opium; the chartering of a lottery company; the licensing of kahunas, or medicine men, &c. Systematic efforts were made to turn the constitutional question intd a race issue, and the party cry was raised of " Hawaii for Hawaiians."
Abraham Fornander i has, however, with great probability, traced back the history of the Hawaiians to the 5th century.
If such be indeed the case, perhaps the noblest of all primitive races may yet be saved from what at one time seemed inevitable extinction; and the Maori, the Samoans, and Tahitians may, like the Hawaiians, take their place beside the Europeans as free citizens of the various states of which they are now subjects.