"You have done well" said his grandfather.
Finally I noticed a very obvious error in the sequence and for an instant I concentrated my attention on the lesson and tried to think how I should have arranged the beads.
You'll all have to walk.
Where in the world have you been, my lad?
It is a little speech that I have written for him.
At dinner that day, on Dessalles' mentioning that the French were said to have already entered Vitebsk, the old prince remembered his son's letter.
In Persia we do not have such feasts.
"Have courage, my boy," said the king.
"I have only six nails," he said, "and it will take a little time to hammer out ten more."
"I think you have been asleep," said the king.
If it isn't I'll have to stand it, that's all.
"Mr. Jefferson," he said, "I have come to ask your pardon.
Have mercy on me.
He said, Henry Longfellow, you have done very well.
Will you have some tea? he added.
But come, children, let us have our supper.
We'd have to pay seven rubles a cartload to Dorogobuzh and I tell them they're not Christians to ask it!
"Prince," said Berg, recognizing Prince Andrew, "I only spoke because I have to obey orders, because I always do obey exactly....
If he had been the only child in the family, things might have been different.
Many boys and indeed many girls have read his story.
Have you been sick?
The mother dragon probably knows the road to the earth's surface, and if she went the other way then we have come the wrong way, said the Wizard, thoughtfully.
I think that he must have fallen upon some bushes and vines that grew in some parts of the chasm.
They have told me nothing, and probably cannot tell me anything to the purpose.
Ours must have got the best of it.
Lucky you jumped aside, or it would have wiped you out!
What would it have cost him to hold out for another two days?
"I have something here for little Edward," he said.
"I have some pennies," said Benjamin.
"If I ever have the good fortune to escape from this island," he said, "I will be kind and obliging to every one.
If you have a mind to make haste, we may surprise them.
We might have done something to help you.
Here is life, an experiment to a great extent untried by me; but it does not avail me that they have tried it.
He told me himself that all the Moscow ladies have conspired to give him all their sons as adjutants.
To get back to that time and have done with all the present!
The prince allowed no one at Bald Hills to drive with ringing bells; but on a long journey Alpatych liked to have them.
From this you will see that you have a perfect right to reassure the inhabitants of Smolensk, for those defended by two such brave armies may feel assured of victory.
We have still six hundred quarters left, he inquired.
I swear to you on my honor that Napoleon was in such a fix as never before and might have lost half his army but could not have taken Smolensk.
"I have talked and talked at the Assembly of the Nobility," Prince Vasili interrupted, "but they did not listen to me.
I have known him a long time!
I meant... do I have time to fix you a hot lunch?
As bad luck would have it, Mr. Randolph took the wrong road.
"I wonder what can have happened to the boy," he said; and he opened the door and looked out.
I will spend all my life, and give all that I have, to lessen the distress and sorrow with which this world seems filled.
Arithmetic seems to have been the only study I did not like.
Have we fo'gotten the waising of the militia in the yeah 'seven?
Folks are leaving the town, but you have come to it, said he.
What have you come for?
So tell them that I shall await a reply till the tenth, and if by the tenth I don't receive news that they have all got away I shall have to throw up everything and come myself to Bald Hills.
"Yes, let them have it," replied Prince Andrew.
They would have had to retire of their own accord, for they had no water for men or horses.
At last we have a man! said he, glancing sternly and significantly round at everyone in the drawing room.
Rostov was just mounting to go for a ride round the neighboring villages with Ilyin; he let Lavrushka have another horse and took him along with him.
But what could have happened?
She was equally certain that he would have loved them.
I thought maybe by now you would have adjusted.
Maybe she would have if she hadn't been shoving it from her mind.
They have no right to be inside the earth at all.
As for reaching the top of the earth, I have never heard that it is possible to do that, and if you succeeded in getting there you would probably fall off.
"Have you a factory in this place?" asked the Wizard, who had been examining the strange personage carefully.
Once you have tried my goods I am sure you will never be without them.
You will notice my braids are tied with yellow, pink, brown, red, green, white and black; but I have no blue ribbons.
They have no weapons to hurt us with.
"Wherever have you been, Eureka?" asked Dorothy, sternly.
Now, Eureka, you'll have to show me the way to those wings.
It's enough to have your pedigree flung in your face by those saucy dragonettes.
Don't forget them, for I may have to eat them, after all.
Have you them here with you?
But I'm afraid you cannot rule the Emerald City, as you used to, because we now have a beautiful Princess whom everyone loves dearly.
"Yes," said the soldier; "but I shaved them off long ago, and since then I have risen from a private to be the Chief General of the Royal Armies."
"There are no stables here," said the Wizard, "unless some have been built since I went away."
So Zeb unharnessed Jim, and several of the servants then led the horse around to the rear, where they selected a nice large apartment that he could have all to himself.
I have sent messengers to summon all of Dorothy's old friends to meet her and give her welcome, and they ought to arrive very soon, now.
These royal beasts are both warm friends of little Dorothy and have come to the Emerald City this morning to welcome her to our fairyland.
"I'm glad of that," said Jim; "for I, also, have a conscience, and it tells me not to crush in your skull with a blow of my powerful hoof."
Have you breakfasted, Sir Horse?
"I have hunted in every part of the room," the maid replied.
The fact is that I left my little pet in my dressing-room lying asleep upon the table; and you must have stolen in without my knowing it.
When I get my thoughts arranged in good order I do not like to have anything upset them or throw them into confusion.
"Your Highness," cried the Woggle-Bug, appealing to Ozma, "have I a mind's eye, or haven't I?"
Prisoner, what have you to say for yourself?
I myself, not being built to eat, have no personal experience in such matters.
The kitten could not have eaten your piglet--for here it is!
If you hadn't happened to find the piglet, Eureka would surely have been executed.
After you have written three or four words, you can put them together, can you not?
"See, mother," he said, "I have bought a whistle."
"You might have bought half a dozen such whistles with the money I gave you," said his mother.
They looked, as they thought, in every place where the lambs might have taken shelter.
"Which would you rather have" asked the caliph, "three hundred pieces of gold, or three wise sayings from my lips?"
Keep the third piece of wisdom for your own use, and let me have the gold.
"I have something to tell you," he said.
"Let us call the neighbors together and have a grand wolf hunt to- morrow," said Putnam.
"Have you a room here for me?" he asked the landlord.
Did he have reddish-brown hair, and did he ride a gray horse?
If you'll come back to my house, you shall have the best room in it--yes, all the rooms if you wish.
Then he turned quickly and said, Mother, I have changed my mind.
I deceived only the birds, but you have deceived me, a painter.
"And I would rather have a young hawk that has been trained to hunt" said Ethelbert.
You would hardly have known the young prince when the time came for him to appear before his grandfather.
"Well, boy, what have you got?" asked one of the robbers, as he pulled Otanes from his horse.
Soon another came up and said, "My boy, do you happen to have any gold about you?"
At length the chief of the band called to Otanes and said, "Young fellow, have you anything worth taking?"
Otanes answered, I have already told two of your men that I have forty pieces of gold in my hat.
No one would have thought that a child like you had gold about him.
"If I had answered your questions differently, I should have told a lie," said Otanes; "and none but cowards tell lies"
The shah turned to the second man: "Have you a daughter?"
Well, we should have thrown both men into prison, and the treasure would have been given to the king.
"These people are poor because they have been too lazy to work," he said.
Three hours later, the ship came into port, as you have already learned.
They saw that all these fables taught some great truth, and they wondered how Aesop could have thought of them.
"Mr. Randolph," answered the innkeeper, "you have paid your bill and don't owe me a cent.
It is true that I have been asleep, but I know nothing about this money.
I know how you must have been overwearied with long hours of watching.
"My men have been scattered," said the king, "and therefore, no one is with me."
Then some one outside called loudly, "Have you seen King Robert the Bruce pass this way?"
You have taught me a lesson.
"Oh, I have a plan for making a boat move without poling it or rowing it," he answered.
"Oh, I have thought of that," said Robert.
But I have met with such bad luck that I am forced to sell them.
"Good friend," he said, "if you should find something that we have lost, what would you do with it?"
With much hard labor and careful management I have saved only five little silver pieces.
But, as I came to your palace this morning, I kept saying to myself, 'When our lord Al Mansour learns just how it was that I borrowed the gold, I have no doubt that in his kindness of heart he will forgive me the debt.'
Let us have a good old song that will help to keep us warm.
"And is this the great, beautiful, happy world that I have been told about?" cried the prince.
But if I had not helped you, you would have been in a worse place.
You have stolen my clothes and have given me these ugly things.
They let you fall into the water, and you would have been drowned, if it hadn't been for me.
I am sorry if I have given her trouble.
You shall have money to buy a larger house and to send your boys to school.
"Come to the palace to-morrow," he said, "and you shall have your clothes.
Be they many or few, you may have all for three pieces of silver.
You were to have all the fish that happened to be in the net and nothing else.
And so I have brought the prize to you, friend Thales.
"The oracle did not intend that I should have it," he said.
"It is well," said he, "that neither a merchant nor a fisherman shall have it; for such men think only of their business and care really nothing for beauty."
"I have heard all about that tripod," he said, "and I know why you are carrying it from one place to another.
"We have here a very beautiful tripod," they said.
The oracle at Delphi has ordered that it shall be given to the wisest of wise men, and for that reason we have brought it to you.
"You have made a mistake," said Chilon.
It is to him that you should have taken the tripod.
"We have offered the prize to each one of them," said the messengers, "and each one has refused it."
The famous men of whom I have told you in this story are commonly called the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
If you had looked ahead fifty years to 1240, you wouldn't have anticipated much change.
And you would have been right.
They exist simply because we have not had the means to solve them in the past.
I am also a historian with a full understanding of how poverty, disease, ignorance, famine, and war have dominated life on this planet.
Could you have foreseen that the advent of a technology called "air conditioning" in homes would alter the social fabric of the nation?
Let's face it: Futurists as a whole have a pretty poor track record.
Or astounding technological breakthroughs that have no precedent in reality.
You would have thought this was crazy.
So would have I. So would have everyone.
History is full of radical breaks with the past that only seem to have come out of nowhere but were, in fact, predictable.
You would have said that was crazy.
However, I often have thought that a second sentence should follow: "Also, those who do know history are doomed to repeat it."
Even most futurists have fallen into this trap.
And I think that helps explain why no one quite foresaw the rise of the Internet: because it doesn't have an offline corollary of its own.
This tendency to only be able to see new technology as an extension of the old is exactly the phenomena we have seen with the Internet.
Because its meaning has to be imputed, we have tended to describe it in terms of prior technologies—which, in many cases, understates its potential by many orders of magnitude.
But it is the biggest, best store ever, where you can buy anything from anywhere, based on reviews by other buyers, at a discount, and have it gift wrapped, engraved, altered, drop-shipped, and probably delivered by tomorrow.
The Internet does not, like the car, have a single essence.
We are at the point, finally, where we are seeing uses of the Internet that have no offline corollary.
But sometimes it is hard to tell them apart when we don't have an offline frame of reference.
I have a page about me.
So the physical mechanisms have been serially transformed, yet the law has never hiccupped.
In just eighteen months from now, we will have duplicated that again and effectively doubled our computation power.
This is going to have profound effects.
If I had an even faster computer than I have today, I could come up with really interesting questions to ask it.
At this point, if you follow my reasoning, we have established at least the possibility of a bright future.
It is thought to have had its apex in Italy—in Venice, Florence, and Rome.
It must have been quite an exciting time to be alive.
It turns out we all have a desire to be artists or philosophers or singers or photographers or commentators or reviewers.
When have we seen so many fortunes made by so many so quickly?
Do I need to prove we have an explosion of technological progress dwarfing the wildest dreams of any age?
But the inventors of our age have put a billion transistors on an area the size of a postage stamp.
People have always had the drive and the ability to build, create, discover, and explore.
We have a natural desire to make beautiful things and a bone-deep need to understand the world we live in and our place in it.
Today we have the Internet and all its associated technologies, vastly more versatile, almost infinite in possibility.
He turned onto Franz Josef Street, where he was not supposed to have been, and drove right in front of a surprised Princip.
Search engines have done a fabulous job tackling this problem, even given the vast, vast, amounts of information added to the Internet every day.
When I go to far-flung places, I often know little of local customs and, through ignorance, I have committed more than one faux pas.
But even if I had a robot that knew everything, I couldn't really say, "Tell me every custom they have here" and be fully informed.
You have to have something more: wisdom.
Every person you meet (we all have GPS).
Now my expectations have changed so much that I'm annoyed everything isn't already connected to the Internet.
We have a natural desire to want to help others.
You probably have a device, such as a smart phone, that has an Internet connection and a GPS.
So we've reached an unprecedented situation in the course of human learning, which is this: The amount of data we have available has outstripped our ability to process it and turn it into knowledge.
This technological shift will have profound effects on the course of human history.
It is an answer engine, but one that attempts to answer questions that have never before been asked.
You could ask it, "What is the number of presidents of the United States born on Friday who have older sisters, multiplied by the number of wars lost by Bolivia?" and it could instantly give you an answer.
I say "could" because I doubt they have all those databases loaded yet, but you get the idea.
Up until now, we have thought of the Internet as a place to store information, and we have depended upon search engines to help us find it.
What if the capability to see connections and even to have them detected was all there for us?
And yet, by the coarse measures we use, in a sense we have the same level of prosperity because we both have cars.
I have the Internet.
I daresay if you have purchased anything on Amazon, you have almost certainly, at some point, purchased an additional item Amazon suggested.
You have picked out a suit, a sharp grey one with barely detectable pinstripes.
In general, when you have such a salesperson, the information is useful.
CPU cycles have replaced the passing of time.
As time passes, the suggestions will become astonishingly on-target—and no human will have programmed that.
He should have just become a steam drill operator!
(It would have many more, but for now let's just say it includes a million things about you.)
And if each of those billion people in turn shared a million of their life experiences, and you recorded them, you'd have an aggregate number of life experiences so large I had to look it up online.
And from every experience they have had in their lives, we would be able to infer what was successful and what was not successful.
We all have had that turn out poorly!
First, it will consider all your friends, people with whom you have actual intimate relationships, and it will look at where they go for Italian food.
This system will look at all the restaurants across the country (even around the world) where you have dined frequently.
It will build a table of all the words used by people like you who have reviewed those restaurants and will look for San Francisco restaurants described with the same words.
The reservation system says they have availability.
How many of them have filed for unemployment since they graduated?
What have the professors at that college ordered online that you have ordered as well?
We never will have the opportunity to learn from the details of their lives and the trillions upon trillions of trial-and-error learning that humankind has repeated again and again.
All the things they tried and failed, or achieved, we have to redo.
In the future, every single person will have at his or her disposal the sum total of the life experience of everyone alive.
In the future, we will all have it.
The quest to end ignorance and the quest to end disease have two important similarities.
And as with ignorance, we may already have much of the data we need to find solutions.
Some people have exceptional abilities we do not understand—for example, savants.
Perhaps we all have such remarkable abilities but are impaired in a way—maybe the rest of us have a disease to which these savants are immune.
Does this have to be the case?
It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio.
Thanks to Jenner, Nelmes, Blossom, and Phipps (which sounds like a rather odd law firm), today we have the word "vaccine."
So these doctors were perhaps just as brilliant as those who have come since.
Had they had the technology of our day, I wonder what they could have accomplished.
Is it actually that blue-eyed redheads have the same number of accidents as non-redheads, but brown-eyed redheads are even more clumsy, accident prone, and traffic hazards?
My guess is we won't have to absorb all this information.
Some have suggested that doing crossword puzzles helps keep the mind active.
You could begin studying something you have noticed anecdotally in your own life.
You won't have to go eat the other foods; the system will remember every meal you have had and will log your headaches.
Then, you will search to see if other people have this same problem.
You won't be able to identify the other people; you will simply see that 1600 other people seem to have this same corn dog issue.
You will then look to see what other factors they all have in common.
But we have a copy of it.
After all, we both have ten fingers, two lungs, and a tongue located in our mouth.
Even identical twins, thought until recently to have identical DNA, actually have slightly different DNA.
(With more than thirty thousand genes in your body, you can't expect them all to have cool names.)
While we have deciphered the genome in that we have written it all down, we aren't at all sure which parts do what, as noted before.
Once we have identified it, we can understand how it is going about doing its damage.
We have already seen this method work.
If people with those conditions get better, information about their treatment can be widely shared with those who have the common genetic factors.
For instance, have you ever seen one of those people on TV who is turning one hundred and says he ate bacon every day of his life?
My guess is that such people have some genetic factor protecting them against the adverse effects of bacon.
And as we have seen, understanding how we are made is certainly a huge advantage in our battle with disease.
But scientists have been busy sequencing all manner of things.
They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
Additionally, we have deciphered the genome of diseases, from SARS to influenza.
We cannot only see our enemy but have deconstructed it to its very core.
With all due respect to Nietzsche, we have looked long into the Abyss, but the Abyss has not looked back into us.
Additionally, we will at some point in the not-too-distant future have enough biological understanding of the genome and enough computer horsepower to model complex interactions in the body.
We have looked at the astonishing possibilities afforded by genomics.
You need to have a basic understanding of how things work in biology.
Second, we have the mobile revolution.
Today, an astonishing 77 percent of the people in the world have mobile devices and thus access to all kinds of better care via telemedicine.
You can share your desktop and have whiteboard sessions on your computer.
And when more and more people have their medical history tracked over time, we will learn even more about how our bodies get sick and how they heal.
The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
Others contend, and feel they have science to support, that humans can live beyond five hundred.
If you take low-worth items or raw materials and apply labor to them to make something that has value, you have created wealth.
By taking a block of marble and carving a statue, or taking a handful of seed and growing a cornfield, you have combined your labor and know-how with something of little value and have created something of more value.
When you trade with someone in a free market, you are giving up something you have for something the other person has, which you value more.
So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
Consider just a few of the mechanisms by which the Internet promotes trade that otherwise would not have occurred.
We have seen this happen already, and it will get substantially better in the near future.
Could you have imagined a store like this if you lived a century ago?
Etsy allows people to trade their crafts, items they have made with their own hands and materials.
Most of these people have other jobs and obligations, so without something like Etsy, they might not be able to enter into these trades.
I buy something because I have certain assumptions about how much happiness it will bring me.
No matter where you live, if you have access to an Internet connection, you can host an online store and sell to the entire world.
I have never so much as tasted a grub worm.
It may have some limit in theory, because there is an optimal arrangement of atoms in the universe; but for practical purposes, it has no limit.
Most things come in a limited supply, so some people have a thing and others do not.
You have ten kids but only nine chairs.
And yet we do have some experience with situations where scarcity is nonexistent.
For all practical purposes, we have an unlimited supply of air to breathe.
But the price of the tractor would have plummeted, for a constellation of reasons.
If these two advances could be combined, we would have a supply of solar energy that was cheap, abundant, and environmentally benign.
We have a hard time seeing this world without scarcity because we are firmly planted in the worldview of scarcity.
They have no known preset limits.
Water isn't scarce either; we have had the same amount forever.
(I answered, "They should get jobs at the factory that would make the lawnmowers; it would pay better.") Personal computers and the Internet have come under criticism in this regard.
First, let's consider the macroeconomic impact of this change—the effect it will have on the net economic status of the planet.
Both of these have political implications, and so it is with some hesitation I bring them up.
We have understandable emotional responses to all these situations.
But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
The net effect is positive, but the laid-off workers will probably have a hard time appreciating it.
A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
If jump ropes or board games or ice cream turn out to have positive externalities—that is, if they help society—a subsidy could lower the prices of these items.
To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
Say you have two countries in the world.
The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.
But outsourcing to pollute, oppress workers, or have unsafe working conditions hurts the world's standard of living.
We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
We only have people doing this work because we have not yet developed the technology to get machines to do it.
All people would have tools to make them more productive.
Many tasks in life have to be done.
They make wonderful servants, but I think they have really terrible jobs.
Have I convinced you that replacing people with machines frees people from the bondage of doing machine work?
In parts of the world where these three ingredients exist, we have seen prosperity rise.
As I have pointed out, technology may in fact have limits, but we do not know what they are.
We have fallen into the habit of anthropomorphizing computers and robots for a simple reason: The more we program them to do things that we presently do, the more we think of them as being like us.
Seeing Scooby-Doo in cartoons doesn't change our expectations of canine behavior because we have so much experience with real dogs.
It is altogether possible that many people would want to have conversations with their dogs mainly because they regard their dogs as sentient.
But I know of no one who would want to have a conversation with a computer program pretending to be his dog.
Machines are not persons and so cannot have personalities.
We have reached the point where many items can only be made by robots.
They still have the hand-operated machine from the 1940s that was used to make the first Legos, but it is of course now a museum piece.
As much as I would like to continue with speculations about molecular-sized machines, I have a larger thesis to prove.
Now, things have shot forward.
Now we can have something completely different: Division of labor between machines and people.
Everything we have talked about relating to the Internet and technology is coming to bear on robotics and nanotechnology.
We still have a thousandfold increase in productivity before us.
I have only three possible answers.
(Of course, I can't go buy a thousand cans for $2,000 and have them worth $10,000 to me.
As we discussed, the Law of Diminishing Returns states that each additional unit of a thing you get is worth a bit less to you than the ones you have already.
The house of the future won't just be better than the house you have today.
It will have windows that cannot be broken and doors that cannot be forced.
It will alert you when you have mice or termites.
Look how far we have come in creating prosperity with almost no technology for so long.
Then, think about how far we have come in the last fifty years.
Try to think of the advances we have seen so far in history as the very tip of the iceberg, a hint of what is possible, not even being within sight of what is possible.
That means your $40,000 salary will have the purchasing power of a $4,000,000 salary today.
If you already have a large amount of productivity, technology will amplify it.
If you have almost no productivity, amplifying it won't really help all that much.
This speaks to the fabulous wealth of this country and how our expectation of material possessions has risen so fast that we have redefined poverty to include what once were deemed luxury items.
If the poor believe they have less justice than the rich, they buy into the system less. 4.
Expropriation is an act that simultaneously violates two of the three ingredients for prosperity that I have enumerated: private property and rule of law.
So far we have looked at poverty and how it is redefined as societies grow richer.
We have surmised the future widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and looked at how that has played out in history.
We have looked at factors that increase animosity between the rich and poor and situations in which they can live harmoniously.
Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
It seems that as national income rises, people choose to create larger governments that offer more entitlements and have more expansive powers.
Or, at least you have that purchasing power.
Why do we have to work for a living?
We have to work at jobs to create wealth because as we live our lives, we consume wealth.
If you want to eat a banana, then you have to create a banana-amount of wealth.
You have to do a banana-amount of work.
In fact, you have no other income.
They may have just moved to Alaska from another state.
But it really is no different than me thinking it is my birthright to be able to have freedom of speech.
Some people will have a hard time adjusting to the new reality.
As we consider the lot of those left behind, it becomes clearer how the end of scarcity will have a profound impact on the world.
When I talk about this future, a future in which machines will do more and more of the work people do now, I always get some variant of the same question: What about the people who lose their jobs to machines and don't have any other skills?
First, it would be tempting to assume the person hauling manure can only do that, and if that job disappeared he would have no useful skills.
It may seem intuitive at first glance, this idea that somehow there are only so many jobs and if you replace people with machines, people have fewer jobs.
Telegraph operators used to have to send every message by hand.
We still have people in boring, dead-end jobs only because we haven't built a machine to do the work.
As I've already said, I believe we will be experiencing so much prosperity in the not-too-distant future that no one will have to work.
In this world, humans have grown fat, stopped walking, and fill their days with non-stop entertainment and food.
In fact, let's say his own mother considered donating the portrait he painted of her to Goodwill but decided not to because "the poor have enough problems already."
They have something they love and want to do, but if market forces are not such that they can support themselves doing that, they have to do something else.
The rich have always had this luxury.
Often when I discuss this idea with people, they bring up an objection I have come to call The Spoiled Rich Kid Problem.
Imagine you live in a large trailer park and you have four young children.
Everyone you know lives in the trailer park and they all have about the same level of income.
We control the temperature of our surroundings, eat food from around the world, and own possessions no king could have imagined.
Plus, we have powers formerly attributed to the ancient gods; we can fly, talk to people in other places, and see what is happening elsewhere.
Economic changes that have long-term positive benefits for society often have short-term negative ones.
Trade and the division of labor have given us vast amounts of wealth.
We live in a place and time where we own thousands of things we could not have made.
Even using extremely primitive technology, we have made marvelous progress.
As machines do ever more things that we used to do, we will have more choices for how we spend our time.
These jobs can be market jobs that have the potential to make a person vastly richer, creating more and more wealth on the planet.
So the problem must be that we have stretched the planet past its ability to feed its inhabitants, right?
After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
To see how governments have tried (with limited success) to address poverty and hunger, consider the history of England.
And that doesn't even count the many other charitable organizations that have not filed for this tax-exempt status with the federal government.
In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
The Amish have no need for Social Security.
They have social security.
Computers, especially computers of the future, will have no trouble handling all the variables that influence nutrition, though there will be millions of them.
But in the future when we have more and better information, if it turns out that some of these methods are not net gains, we will know that and look elsewhere for solutions.
So the current frustrating situation, where so many people have such wildly divergent understandings about nutrition, will fade away.
At the same time, the percent of income we individually have to spend on feeding ourselves plummeted as well.
The problem is not that the world doesn't have enough food.
The problem is that the poor don't have enough money to afford the food.
In the lean years, harvests are small and farmers sometimes don't even produce enough to have surplus to sell.
Farmers need to have supplies of seed, fertilizer, tractors, and fuel.
International aid strategies have often worked against each other.
In that case, they have to compete with rich, high-tech, government-subsidized industries.
When few people own land and most people live in cities, it is quite common to have high degrees of hunger in a nation that is exporting food.
The urban half clearly have no opportunity to farm.
So let's say the large corn farms all have a great year and a bountiful crop comes forth.
(Well, I personally have not; I have regressed from this state.
It means we have plenty of room for improvement.
Ever since we've had agriculture, people have been employing technology to make it better.
Since then, the changes have become more about intellectual property and technique.
By the time Norman Borlaug passed away in 2009 at the age of ninety-five, he had become one of only six people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Congressional Gold Medal.
He didn't have computers or even a calculator.
He didn't have genome sequencing.
All the seeds we have today have these inherent limits built into them that we still haven't figured out how to change.
To describe ending hunger in the future, I have only these tarnished terms of the present at my disposal.
And yet the future I envision is no more like what we have today than a state-of-the-art Volvo factory is like a nineteenth-century London sweatshop.
The farm of the future will have neither.
I have eaten food pretty much my whole life.
You can't do something that long and not have some strong opinions on the matter.
Today, I have a vegetable garden in my backyard.
I have an extensive library of very old recipe books, including several "autographs"—original, handwritten, unpublished, personal cookbooks—that date back to the early 1700s.
What if a manufactured steak was as good as the best steak you have ever had?
And we all know about those that optimize for cost and nutrition but the resulting food tastes awful; I have consumed enough wheatgrass to attest to this.
You can't have everything.
Since one cannot have everything, seed makers invariably will make trade-offs that might be different than what I would make.
Have you ever eaten GMO foods?
Thus we had genetic modifications in plants that could have occurred in nature but probably wouldn't have.
This change could have occurred in nature; given enough monkeys and typewriters, it would eventually occur in nature.
Rice doesn't naturally have vitamin A. Enter transgenics.
Can you guess how many lives these two varieties of rice have already saved?
This is especially unfortunate because a major crop in Africa, grain sorghum, has a somewhat indigestible protein which our bodies have a hard time metabolizing.
By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
As we have reasoned, when the Internet and related technologies help bring an end to poverty, the end of poverty will largely solve the problem of hunger.
As mentioned earlier, farmers suffer when they do not have reliable markets for their goods.
The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
As Nobel laureate Amartya Sen has noted, democracies don't have famines.
With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
All that we have explored in this section—rising incomes, advances in nutrition and genomics, innovations in agricultural technologies—will eventually end hunger.
It is akin to saying you have a right to life but not a right to a heart.
Some might say something I consider even worse: It is inexcusable that some go hungry while you have so much.
I am going to take some of what you have and give it to someone else.
If you have a problem with that, take it up with the man with the gun.
While Jefferson's "all men are created equal" statement was not meant by him to include slaves, we have broadened the application of the principle and should continue to do so.
You will have ended hunger in the United States.
What would we have the centuries to come to say about us: That we were so eager to maximize our position of power and wealth that we turned a blind eye to injustice?
People who buy organic food, for instance, are not doing it simply because they have more money.
Deciding to end hunger today saves the lives of millions, and we have the technology to do it.
But in making the case that war can and will be ended, I have my work cut out for me.
I outline forty-five different ways this will happen—surely enough that even if you don't agree with them all, you will still have plenty of reason to be optimistic.
I offer them because they have something interesting in common.
This is how people lived their lives in the past and if asked about it, they would have defended it.
The disturbing thing to realize is we would have been those people had we been born in those times.
I want to spend some time talking about civilization, but first I want to recount the progress that we have made through civilization.
No longer can a person own another person and have the power of the state backing him up.
In many places, we have ended the legal discrimination of people based on race.
We have stigmatized racism; and while it unquestionably still exists between many races, racism is becoming less and less relevant.
We have seen the end of hereditary monarchy.
Monarchy is not inherently bad, and there have been fine kings and queens in history.
We have ended pain as entertainment—or at least, involuntary participation in pain as entertainment.
We no longer have public executions as a form of entertainment.
In many parts of the world, we have even outlawed the use of animals fighting as entertainment, such as cockfighting and dogfighting.
During World War II, when General Patton got sacked for slapping a soldier whom he regarded as cowardly, the Germans couldn't believe it: Their officers could have soldiers shot without trial!
I am not saying we have ended torture.
The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
We have come to expect due process for all.
We have not only outlawed cruelty to animals, but increasingly, people care about the living conditions of even the animals they eat.
(I don't personally see how a chicken, in any situation, can have dignity.
We have eliminated debtors prisons, developed the idea of "women and children first," stigmatized child labor, made accommodations for conscientious objectors, widely adopted freedom of speech and the press and freedom of assembly, and a hundred more.
Maybe you think prisoners have it too easy serving time while their victims struggle to piece their lives back together.
Even our aspirations have become more civilized.
We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
After all, we have had war almost constantly throughout history and yet have still managed to progress.
I feel we have set the bar way too low and in doing so have fundamentally cheapened life, everyone's life.
We have a police force and a court system to apply the laws equally to all.
So, when I tell you we will see the end of war, if you are over thirty-five years of age, you have every reason to roll your eyes and tell me you have seen this movie before and aren't up for the sequel.
You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.
As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
In the 1968 book The Lessons of History, Will and Ariel Durant calculated that, "In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war."
But this politics of war have in fact worked this way repeated, across place and time.
Technically speaking, I have included a few that are not dependent on the Internet per se, but in which the Internet and technology plays some role.
How things have changed!
In the modern age, we have simply transferred the competition to a new arena: the business world.
If you have no food and are starving, you might invade your neighbor and take his food.
If you have everything you have ever wanted, you have less to gain and more to lose by invading your neighbor.
Some have questioned whether Friedman's thesis is 100 percent true, mentioning NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia as a potential exception.
War disrupts this, and people will have little patience for it if there is not an extremely compelling reason for it.
More and more of the things we have, we "can't live without."
Civilization and the division of labor have gotten ever better at creating and adding value, thereby making things we love.
They have no economic advantage in going to war.
But now we have introduced uncertainty.
The more I have a personal vested interest in your success, the better.
Now we have an interlocked banking system that moves money around the world at light speed.
In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
Roughly a quarter of the way through our list of factors that will end war, we have reached the end of the economic ones.
Second, monarchs themselves often have only a financial risk in war.
Like kings, dictators have little regard for their subjects.
That should have been the end of it, right?
The Japanese soldiers who battled the German soldiers must have wondered why they were fighting.
In fact, virtually everyone should have wondered why he was fighting soldiers from places he couldn't find on a map.
This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.
And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
But maybe as a civilization, we have to talk out loud to figure out where we stand, to make progress.
When everyone, and every nation, and every organization, and every movement all have a presence on the web, they can be understood in terms of it.
I have no doubt there are all kinds of things in the Twitterverse that I want to know about, but I only find the ones that I first knew to look for.
Everyone will be on Facebook, as will be every business, every idea, every brand, and all the people who were once members but have since passed away.
Most Facebook users have people of other ethnicities and national origin as Facebook friends.
For instance, if you have a Facebook friend Abigail in Albania whom you only met once at a rock-paper-scissors competition years ago, you will generally regard Abigail's first-hand account as authoritative, even though you don't really know Abigail all that well.
Organizations have encouraged "pen pals for peace" exchanges—but such efforts tend to be limited in scale, and if there is one thing Facebook has, it is scale.
The system we have is not perfect, but it is highly distributed and bottom up.
O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
Fast-forward a couple of decades, and the Internet has done vastly more than O'Neill could have imagined to promote open information about government.
We have seen it most recently and most profoundly in the Arab Spring, where the motto we see again and again is Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizam, or "The people want to bring down the regime."
But English seems to have taken hold, thanks to the Internet.
Wars have often been the result of misunderstandings brought about by language.
It seems fitting to end this part of the list—ways that information and communication will help end war—by noting that every day, every moment, more and more people have access to the Internet.
So whatever trends we have observed so far are only getting started.
Because dictators have the intellectuals killed, not the farmers.
Younger people have less wealth than older ones, on average.
This is a force for peace, as more and more people have family members in more than one culture and share the interests of more than one nationality.
If your father is American and your mother Chinese, you will have a different understanding of differences between those countries, and, on balance, will be less amenable to war between those nations.
When you have visited a place, you will find it harder to advocate its destruction.
And with every passing year, more people have visited more places.
More than 70 percent of the British have passports, as do 50 percent of Canadians and 25 percent of Japanese.
I have never met someone who returned from another country saying, Man, those guys are such jerks.
One might have expected to find YouTube making its cameo in the earlier "communication" section, but I deliberately moved it here.
We don't simply have more video screens; we now have an infinitude of broadcasters.
From the way I have written this, it is clear where my sympathies lie.
But we do not have to rely solely on those.
We seem to have lost our stomach for these kinds of losses.
In the future, nations still will have differences.
We will have ended war with an honorable peace.
Whether it is the notion of manufacturing meat or having the computer tell you what you should order at the restaurant, you may have cringed and thought, "Man, that's kind of creepy."
All kinds of artists have come and gone in the last four centuries, popular in their time but forgotten now.
You have invented an elixir not of memory, but of reminding.
If they had not, lengthy epics would never have survived oral transmission for centuries.
My memory is a big part of who I am and I have no desire to trade any of it away.
I think they would have said, That is kind of creepy.
It also seemed perfectly reasonable to take the 1962 Nash Metropolitan for a spin around the block, even though it didn't have brakes either.
We have achieved all that we have today in a very low-tech world.
Instead of relearning things over the course of centuries, people will be able to learn from the choices others have made.
In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
Instead, you have to find small things over which to argue, like whether the capital gains tax should be raised.
Other than cataclysm, asymmetrical attack, or government gone wild, we have little to worry about.
All these problems that technology will solve have made our underlying differences worse—but removing these problems will not eliminate those underlying differences.
If we have the will and if we do the work, we can make the world greater than we have ever imagined.
So, far from reaching that point the pessimists foretold—where we have exhausted the meager resources of earth and find ourselves dwindling away—something entirely different is happening.
Thinking that turn and turn about is fair play, she seized the scissors and cut off one of my curls, and would have cut them all off but for my mother's timely interference.
A shiver ran through the tree, and the wind sent forth a blast that would have knocked me off had I not clung to the branch with might and main.
All my early lessons have in them the breath of the woods--the fine, resinous odour of pine needles, blended with the perfume of wild grapes.
After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
Miss Sullivan and I kept up a game of guessing which taught me more about the use of language than any set lessons could have done.
I knew the gifts I already had were not those of which friends had thrown out such tantalizing hints, and my teacher said the presents I was to have would be even nicer than these.
When I next saw her she was a formless heap of cotton, which I should not have recognized at all except for the two bead eyes which looked out at me reproachfully.
But the rumble of the machinery made me think it was thundering, and I began to cry, because I feared if it rained we should not be able to have our picnic out of doors.
I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
Their kindness to me was the seed from which many pleasant memories have since grown.
It seems to have been the beginning of everything.
We would have taken any way rather than this; but it was late and growing dark, and the trestle was a short cut home.
All life seemed to have ebbed away, and even when the sun shone the day was
As I talked, happy thoughts fluttered up out of my words that might perhaps have struggled in vain to escape my fingers.
Miss Fuller and Miss Sullivan could understand me, but most people would not have understood one word in a hundred.
I spoke up and said, "Oh, no, it is my story, and I have written it for Mr. Anagnos."
I think if this sorrow had come to me when I was older, it would have broken my spirit beyond repairing.
All the friends I loved best, except one, have remained my own to the present time.
I have never played with words again for the mere pleasure of the game.
I have read "The Frost Fairies" since, also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's.
In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
But I do not understand how he ever thought a blind and deaf child of eleven could have invented them.
It is only after years of this sort of practice that even great men have learned to marshal the legion of words which come thronging through every byway of the mind.
Likewise my compositions are made up of crude notions of my own, inlaid with the brighter thoughts and riper opinions of the authors I have read.
So this sad experience may have done me good and set me thinking on some of the problems of composition.
For two years he seems to have held the belief that Miss Sullivan and I were innocent.
From these relics I learned more about the progress of man than I have heard or read since.
I have never ceased to enjoy this pastime.
I loved to have it described every time I entered it; for it was beautiful in all its aspects, and these aspects were so many that it was beautiful in a different way each day of the nine months I spent in New York.
Before I left New York, these bright days were darkened by the greatest sorrow that I have ever borne, except the death of my father.
In study hours she had to look up new words for me and read and reread notes and books I did not have in raised print.
I wondered more and more, while Burke's masterly speech rolled on in mighty surges of eloquence, how it was that King George and his ministers could have turned a deaf ear to his warning prophecy of our victory and their humiliation.
I thought how strange it was that such precious seeds of truth and wisdom should have fallen among the tares of ignorance and corruption.
Some of the girls learned to speak to me, so that Miss Sullivan did not have to repeat their conversation.
He had to pass five hours at a time to have them counted.
It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
I wish to say here that I have not had this advantage since in any of my examinations.
At Radcliffe no one reads the papers to me after they are written, and I have no opportunity to correct errors unless I finish before the time is up.
As I have said before, I had no aptitude for mathematics; the different points were not explained to me as fully as I wished.
He was always gentle and forbearing, no matter how dull I might be, and believe me, my stupidity would often have exhausted the patience of Job.
But if they unintentionally placed obstacles in my way, I have the consolation of knowing that I overcame them all.
If I have since learned differently, I am not going to tell anybody.
I have tried many machines, and I find the Hammond is the best adapted to the peculiar needs of my work.
With this machine movable type shuttles can be used, and one can have several shuttles, each with a different set of characters--Greek, French, or mathematical, according to the kind of writing one wishes to do on the typewriter.
The manual part takes longer, and I have perplexities which they have not.
It comes over me that in the last two or three pages of this chapter I have used figures which will turn the laugh against me.
While my days at Radcliffe were still in the future, they were encircled with a halo of romance, which they have lost; but in the transition from romantic to actual I have learned many things I should never have known had I not tried the experiment.
Indeed, books have meant so much more in my education than in that of others, that I shall go back to the time when I began to read.
I read my first connected story in May, 1887, when I was seven years old, and from that day to this I have devoured everything in the shape of a printed page that has come within the reach of my hungry finger tips.
As I have said, I did not study regularly during the early years of my education; nor did I read according to rule.
We had hurried through the dish-washing after luncheon, in order that we might have as long an afternoon as possible for the story.
I do not know why it is, but stories in which animals are made to talk and act like human beings have never appealed to me very strongly.
But I love "The Jungle Book" and "Wild Animals I Have Known."
One could have traveled round the word many times while I trudged my weary way through the labyrinthine mazes of grammars and dictionaries, or fell into those dreadful pitfalls called examinations, set by schools and colleges for the confusion of those who seek after knowledge.
But how shall I speak of the glories I have since discovered in the Bible?
I do not think that the knowledge which I have gained of its history and sources compensates me for the unpleasant details it has forced upon my attention.
I do not remember a time since I have been capable of loving books that I have not loved Shakespeare.
"Macbeth" seems to have impressed me most.
It seems strange that my first reading of Shakespeare should have left me so many unpleasant memories.
The bright, gentle, fanciful plays--the ones I like best now--appear not to have impressed me at first, perhaps because they reflected the habitual sunshine and gaiety of a child's life.
I have since read Shakespeare's plays many times and know parts of them by heart, but I cannot tell which of them I like best.
The little songs and the sonnets have a meaning for me as fresh and wonderful as the dramas.
But, with all my love for Shakespeare, it is often weary work to read all the meanings into his lines which critics and commentators have given them.
Though I believe it is no longer considered valid, yet I have kept it ever since as one of my treasures.
In my college reading I have become somewhat familiar with French and German literature.
Of all the French writers that I have read, I like Moliere and Racine best.
I trust that my readers have not concluded from the preceding chapter on books that reading is my only pleasure; my pleasures and amusements are many and varied.
More than once in the course of my story I have referred to my love of the country and out-of-door sports.
Whether it comes from the trees which have been heated by the sun, or from the water, I can never discover.
I have had the same strange sensation even in the heart of the city.
I have felt it on cold, stormy days and at night.
I have many tree friends in Wrentham.
As soon as my examinations were over, Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous.
I have had many dog friends--huge mastiffs, soft-eyed spaniels, wood-wise setters and honest, homely bull terriers.
I have a special board on which I play these games.
The chessmen are of two sizes, the white larger than the black, so that I have no trouble in following my opponent's maneuvers by moving my hands lightly over the board after a play.
I have a picture of old Rip in my fingers which they will never lose.
I have also seen him in "The Rivals."
Of course, I have no sense whatever of dramatic action, and could make only random guesses; but with masterful art he suited the action to the word.
The perplexities, irritations and worries that have absorbed us pass like unpleasant dreams, and we wake to see with new eyes and hear with new ears the beauty and harmony of God's real world.
I have often been asked, "Do not people bore you?"
I have met people so empty of joy, that when I clasped their frosty finger tips, it seemed as if I were shaking hands with a northeast storm.
Others there are whose hands have sunbeams in them, so that their grasp warms my heart.
I have many far-off friends whom I have never seen.
I count it one of the sweetest privileges of my life to have known and conversed with many men of genius.
Love your Heavenly Father with your whole heart and soul, love every child of God as much as ever you can, and remember that the possibilities of good are greater than the possibilities of evil; and you have the key to Heaven.
Since Bishop Brooks died I have read the Bible through; also some philosophical works on religion, among them Swedenborg's "Heaven and Hell" and Drummond's "Ascent of Man," and I have found no creed or system more soul-satisfying than Bishop Brooks's creed of love.
He said he was the little boy in the poem, and that the girl's name was Sally, and more which I have forgotten.
I have known him since I was eight, and my love for him has increased with my years.
What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life--love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward.
Here in Dr. Bell's laboratory, or in the fields on the shore of the great Bras d'Or, I have spent many delightful hours listening to what he had to tell me about his experiments, and helping him fly kites by means of which he expects to discover the laws that shall govern the future air-ship.
I received from them gifts that have the gentle concurrence of the heart, books containing their own thoughts, soul-illumined letters, and photographs that I love to have described again and again.
One is Mrs. William Thaw, of Pittsburgh, whom I have often visited in her home, Lyndhurst.
She is always doing something to make some one happy, and her generosity and wise counsel have never failed my teacher and me in all the years we have known her.
Thus it is that my friends have made the story of my life.
They are the exercises which have trained her to write.
From the letters after the year 1892 I have culled in the spirit of one making an anthology, choosing the passages best in style and most important from the point of view of biography.
I have done nothing but select and cut.
We do have fun with Jumbo.
We did dance and play and eat nuts and candy and cakes and oranges and I did have fun with little boys and girls.
Mother will make ice-cream for dinner, we will have ice-cream and cake for dinner.
I will have fun with little blind girls.
Robert will come to see me Sunday when sun shines and I will have fun with him.
When you come to Tuscumbia to see me I hope my father will have many sweet apples and juicy peaches and fine pears and delicious grapes and large water melons.
I have been in a large boat.
Many years ago there lived in England many good people, but the king and his friends were not kind and gentle and patient with good people, because the king did not like to have the people disobey him.
J'ai une bonne petite soeur is French, and it means I have a good little sister.
My dear Mrs. Hopkins:-- I have just fed my dear little pigeon.
Mother and father and their friends have gone to see a huge furnace.
We have just eaten our breakfast.
I have been reading in my book about astronomers.
I would like to have some clay.
I have been at home a great many weeks now.
Did you have a pleasant Christmas?
I have four dolls now.
I have two tame pigeons and a tiny canary bird.
We will have fine times together.
The roses have been beautiful.
Have I done anything wrong?
I have laughed at the poor duck, with the red rag tied round its leg.
I think we shall have a beautiful time out in the cool, pleasant woods.
I shall be delighted to have a typewriter.
At nine I go to the gymnasium with the little girls and we have great fun.
My Dear Mr. Wade:--I have just received a letter from my mother, telling me that the beautiful mastiff puppy you sent me had arrived in Tuscumbia safely.
I shall be happy to have a letter from you when you like to write to me.
I love you very dearly, because you have taught me so many lovely things about flowers, and birds, and people.
I imagine she will have fun with the little toy man.
I am going to have a Christmas tree in the parlor and teacher will hang all of my gifts upon it.
All of the girls have gone home to spend Christmas.
Her throat was very sore and the doctor thought she would have to go away to the hospital, but she is better now.
I have not been sick at all.
We will have great fun I am sure.
I hope I have written my letter nicely, but it is very difficult to write on this paper and teacher is not here to give me better.
I am sorry that you have no little children to play with you sometimes; but I think you are very happy with your books, and your many, many friends.
I am studying about insects in zoology, and I have learned many things about butterflies.
Now I must tell my gentle poet good-bye, for I have a letter to write home before I go to bed.
Why does the dear Father in heaven think it best for us to have very great sorrow sometimes?
I hope you will write to your little friend when you have time.
You have studied all this, I don't doubt, since you have practised vocal speaking.
It does great credit, not only to you, but to your instructors, who have so broken down the walls that seemed to shut you in that now your outlook seems more bright and cheerful than that of many seeing and hearing children.
It makes me very happy to know that I have kind and loving friends in the far-away State of Maine.
Please tell the brave sailors, who have charge of the HELEN KELLER, that little Helen who stays at home will often think of them with loving thoughts.
I have it pinned to my dress.
I have only seen Mr. Anagnos twice.
What a nice time I shall have reading them!
I have already read Sara Crewe.
If I were with you to-day I would give you eighty-three kisses, one for each year you have lived.
My Dear Young Friend--I was very glad to have such a pleasant letter on my birthday.
My Dear Friend, Mr. Krehl:--I have just heard, through Mr. Wade, of your kind offer to buy me a gentle dog, and I want to thank you for the kind thought.
It makes me very happy indeed to know that I have such dear friends in other lands.
I have read that the English and Americans are cousins; but I am sure it would be much truer to say that we are brothers and sisters.
My friends have told me about your great and magnificent city, and I have read a great deal that wise Englishmen have written.
I have begun to read "Enoch Arden," and I know several of the great poet's poems by heart.
His parents are too poor to pay to have the little fellow sent to school; so, instead of giving me a dog, the gentlemen are going to help make Tommy's life as bright and joyous as mine.
Sweet Mother Nature can have no secrets from me when my poet is near.
I have chosen this paper because I want the spray of violets in the corner to tell you of my grateful love.
He is poor and helpless and lonely now, but before another April education will have brought light and gladness into Tommy's life.
It seems to me that all people who have loving, pitying hearts, are not strangers to each other.
He cannot imagine how very, very happy he will be when he can tell us his thoughts, and we can tell him how we have loved him so long.
He has found out that doors have locks, and that little sticks and bits of paper can be got into the key-hole quite easily; but he does not seem very eager to get them out after they are in.
I am sure his heart was always full of music, and in God's beautiful world he must have heard love's sweet replying.
Did you know that the blind children are going to have their commencement exercises in Tremont Temple, next Tuesday afternoon?
It is undated, but must have been written two or three months before it was published.
We have a grooved board which we put between the pages when we wish to write.
You remember teacher and I told you Sunday that I wanted to have a little tea in aid of the kindergarten.
Teacher said yesterday, that perhaps Mrs. Spaulding would be willing to let us have her beautiful house, and [I] thought I would ask you about it.
I shall be so disappointed if my little plans fail, because I have wanted for a long time to do something for the poor little ones who are waiting to enter the kindergarten.
I have a very pretty little cart now, and if it ever stops raining teacher and I are going to drive every evening.
I like to have my friends' pictures even though I cannot see them.
I have loved you for a long time, but I did not think you had ever heard of me until your sweet message came.
Please kiss your dear little baby for me, and tell her I have a little brother nearly sixteen months old.
You must have wondered why your letter has not had an answer, and perhaps you have thought Teacher and me very naughty indeed.
Teacher's eyes have been hurting her so that she could not write to any one, and I have been trying to fulfil a promise which I made last summer.
The reports which you have read in the paper about me are not true at all.
I love all living things,--I suppose everyone does; but of course I cannot have a menagerie.
I have a beautiful pony, and a large dog.
This was the surprise--I was to have the pleasure of taking my dear teacher to see Niagara Falls!...
You can never imagine how I felt when I stood in the presence of Niagara until you have the same mysterious sensations yourself.
How you would have enjoyed hearing him tell about Venice!
I used to say I did not like arithmetic very well, but now I have changed my mind.
I have only a few moments left in which to answer your questions about the "Helen Keller" Public Library.
They have now about 100 books and about $55 in money, and a kind gentleman has given us land on which to erect a library building.
But in the meantime the club has rented a little room in a central part of the town, and the books which we already have are free to all. 3.
I did not like to trouble them while I was trying to get money for poor little Tommy, for of course it was more important that he should be educated than that my people should have books to read. 4.
I do not know what books we have, but I think it is a miscellaneous (I think that is the word) collection....
It is a very interesting souvenir of Columbus, and of the Fair White City; but I cannot imagine what discoveries I have made,--I mean new discoveries.
I have lately read "Wilhelm Tell" by Schiller, and "The Lost Vestal."...
I only wish you could have seen and heard him!
I might have seen Mrs. Wiggin, the sweet author of "Birds' Christmas Carol," but she had a dangerous cough and could not come.
I was much disappointed not to see her, but I hope I shall have that pleasure some other time.
The last act affected us most deeply, and we all wept, wondering how the executioner could have the heart to tear the King from his loving wife's arms.
I have just finished reading "Ivanhoe."
Indeed, you can never know all the comfort you have given us.
I can never tell you how much pleasure they have given us.
Have you read the beautiful poem, "Waiting"?
I have read "Le Medecin Malgre Lui," a very good French comedy by Moliere, with pleasure; and they say I speak French pretty well now, and German also.
As I sit by the window writing to you, it is so lovely to have the soft, cool breezes fan my cheek and to feel that the hard work of last year is over!
Have you ever been at Dr. Crouter's Institution?
We think of you so, so often! and our hearts go out to you in tenderest sympathy; and you know better than this poor letter can tell you how happy we always are to have you with us!
We visited our good friends, Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin, at Wrentham, out in the country, where they have a lovely home.
Perhaps our guardian angel gathers them up as we drop them, and will give them back to us in the beautiful sometime when we have grown wiser, and learned how to use them rightly.
Sometimes it really seems as if the task which we have set ourselves were more than we can accomplish; but at other times I enjoy my work more than I can say.
All the time I was preparing for the great ordeal, I could not suppress an inward fear and trembling lest I should fail, and now it is an unspeakable relief to know that I have passed the examinations with credit.
We have had some splendid toboganning this month.
I have only ridden a "sociable," which is very different from the ordinary tandem.
Besides, I have been told that "sociables" cost more than other kinds of bicycles.
I ride with a divided skirt, and so does my teacher; but it would be easier for her to mount a man's wheel than for me; so, if it could be arranged to have the ladies' seat behind, I think it would be better....
I have really learned to swim and dive--after a fashion!
This is the first opportunity I have had to write to you since we came here last Monday.
I wish it were not such a bother to move, especially as we have to do it so often!...
But alas! they are not, and I shall have to content myself with a stroll in the Gardens.
They look down pityingly on the country-folk, who have never had an opportunity "to see the great world."
How funny they must have looked in their "rough-rider" costumes, mounted upon their fiery steeds!
"Slim" would describe them, if they were anything like the saw-horses I have seen.
What jolly times they must have at--!
I cannot help wishing sometimes that I could have some of the fun that other girls have.
TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON 12 Newbury Street, Boston, January 17, 1899. ...Have you seen Kipling's "Dreaming True," or "Kitchener's School?"
Of course you have read about the "Gordon Memorial College," which the English people are to erect at Khartoum.
On the other hand, it would be a pledge to the world that we intend to stand by our declaration of war, and give Cuba to the Cubans, as soon as we have fitted them to assume the duties and responsibilities of a self-governing people....
So you see, I had a foretaste of the pleasure which I hope some day to have of visiting Florence.
Why, bless you, I thought I wrote to you the day after the "Eclogues" arrived, and told you how glad I was to have them!
I already have the seventh and eighth books of the "Aeneid" and one book of the "Iliad," all of which is most fortunate, as I have come almost to the end of my embossed text-books.
As to the two-handed alphabet, I think it is much easier for those who have sight than the manual alphabet; for most of the letters look like the large capitals in books; but I think when it comes to teaching a deaf-blind person to spell, the manual alphabet is much more convenient, and less conspicuous....
I have just had some pictures taken, and if they are good, I would like to send one to Mr. Rogers, if you think he would like to have it.
I have at least the satisfaction of seeing them through the eyes of my friends, which is a real pleasure.
I have his "Jungle-Book" in raised print, and what a splendid, refreshing book it is!
TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON [Boston] May 28th . ...We have had a hard day.
Why, I should have to be a Cicero to talk like a Cicero!...
Consequently, I did not do so well as I should have done, if Teacher had been allowed to read the Algebra and Geometry to me.
My mother, and sister and little brother have been here five weeks, and our happiness knows no bounds.
Miss Irwin seemed to have no objection to this proposal, and kindly offered to see the professors and find out if they would give me lessons.
Now we have a swell winter outfit--coats, hats, gowns, flannels and all.
We have seen many of our old friends, and made some new ones.
I have seen Dr. Greer too.
We went to St. Bartholomew's Sunday, and I have not felt so much at home in a church since dear Bishop Brooks died.
His people must have wondered at his unusual deliberation.
I do not think I have told you that my dear teacher is reading "The Faery Queen" to me.
Perhaps next week I shall have some more books, "The Tempest," "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and possibly some selections from Green's history of England.
My friends think it very strange that they should hesitate so long, especially when I have not asked them to simplify my work in the least, but only to modify it so as to meet the existing circumstances.
My friends thought we might have one or two pupils in our own home, thereby securing to me the advantage of being helpful to others without any of the disadvantages of a large school.
I considered this suggestion carefully, then I told Mr. Rhoades that I should be proud and glad to have wise friends to whom I could always turn for advice in all important matters.
Mrs. Hutton had already written to mother, asking her to telegraph if she was willing for me to have other advisers besides herself and Teacher.
They have also written to Mr. Hitz about her.
I have written to her that when Maud learns to read, I shall have many stories to send her.
Katie played with Miss Rhoades's rings and took them away, saying with a merry laugh, "You shall not have them again!"
I have always accepted other peoples experiences and observations as a matter of course.
I have worn it only once, but then I felt that Solomon in all his glory was not to be compared with me!
I have had a letter from Mrs. Thaw with regard to the possibility of doing something for these children.
TO MR. WILLIAM WADE Cambridge, February 2, 1901. ...By the way, have you any specimens of English braille especially printed for those who have lost their sight late in life or have fingers hardened by long toil, so that their touch is less sensitive than that of other blind people?
It is evident that the blind should have a good magazine, not a special magazine for the blind, but one of our best monthlies, printed in embossed letters.
Gentlemen: I have only to-day found time to reply to your interesting letter.
A little bird had already sung the good news in my ear; but it was doubly pleasant to have it straight from you.
It would be splendid to have The Great Round World printed in "language that can be felt."
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us?
Whatever doubts Miss Keller herself may have had are now at rest.
"Well," she replied, "he seems to have done all the essential things."
She seems to have very little sense of direction.
Even people who know her fairly well have written in the magazines about Miss Sullivan's "mysterious telegraphic communications" with her pupil.
They cost a great deal to publish and they have not a large enough sale to make them profitable to the publisher; but there are several institutions with special funds to pay for embossed books.
Miss Sullivan says that both she and Miss Keller remember "in their fingers" what they have said.
The question of a special "sixth sense," such as people have ascribed. to Miss Keller, is a delicate one.
This much is certain, she cannot have any sense that other people may not have, and the existence of a special sense is not evident to her or to any one who knows her.
Philosophers have tried to find out what was her conception of abstract ideas before she learned language.
Her sense of time is excellent, but whether it would have developed as a special faculty cannot be known, for she has had a watch since she was seven years old.
Miss Keller has two watches, which have been given her.
Some time ago, when a policeman shot dead her dog, a dearly loved daily companion, she found in her forgiving heart no condemnation for the man; she only said, 'If he had only known what a good dog she was, he wouldn't have shot her.'
Both Mr. Gilman and Mr. Keith, the teachers who prepared her for college, were struck by her power of constructive reasoning; and she was excellent in pure mathematics, though she seems never to have enjoyed it much.
In the diary that she kept at the Wright-Humason School in New York she wrote on October 18, 1894, "I find that I have four things to learn in my school life here, and indeed, in life--to think clearly without hurry or confusion, to love everybody sincerely, to act in everything with the highest motives, and to trust in dear God unhesitatingly."
Have you seen the paper I wrote for the 'report'?
In these letters we have an almost weekly record of Miss Sullivan's work.
Many people have thought that any attempt to find the principles in her method would be nothing but a later theory superimposed on Miss Sullivan's work.
I have also italicized a few important passages.
At present we have here the fullest record that has been published.
She rarely smiles; indeed, I have seen her smile only once or twice since I came.
I suppose I shall have many such battles with the little woman before she learns the only two essential things I can teach her, obedience and love.
Since I wrote you, Helen and I have gone to live all by ourselves in a little garden-house about a quarter of a mile from her home, only a short distance from Ivy Green, the Keller homestead.
I very soon made up my mind that I could do nothing with Helen in the midst of the family, who have always allowed her to do exactly as she pleased.
There is a piazza in front, covered with vines that grow so luxuriantly that you have to part them to see the garden beyond.
She played with her dolls more than usual, and would have nothing to do with me.
I don't think she has any special tenderness for them--I have never seen her caress them; but she dresses and undresses them many times during the day and handles them exactly as she has seen her mother and the nurse handle her baby sister.
As I have said before, she is wonderfully bright and active and as quick as lightning in her movements.
I have just heard something that surprised me very much.
I have noticed also that she eats much less, a fact which troubles her father so much that he is anxious to get her home.
I don't agree with him; but I suppose we shall have to leave our little bower very soon.
I think "no" and "yes," conveyed by a shake or a nod of my head, have become facts as apparent to her as hot and cold or as the difference between pain and pleasure.
I have told Captain and Mrs. Keller that they must not interfere with me in any way.
They have promised to let me have a free hand and help me as much as possible.
This morning she planted her doll and showed me that she expected her to grow as tall as I. You must see that she is very bright, but you have no idea how cunning she is.
At eleven we have gymnastics.
Helen's instincts are decidedly social; she likes to have people about her and to visit her friends, partly, I think, because they always have things she likes to eat.
Everything must have a name now.
I HAVE DECIDED NOT TO TRY TO HAVE REGULAR LESSONS FOR THE PRESENT.
I have been observing Helen's little cousin lately.
These observations have given me a clue to the method to be followed in teaching Helen language.I SHALL TALK INTO HER HAND AS WE TALK INTO THE BABY'S EARS.
After she had played with them a little while, the thought occurred to her that the puppies must have special names, like people, and she asked for the name of each pup.
Since I have abandoned the idea of regular lessons, I find that Helen learns much faster.
We have begun to take long walks every morning, immediately after breakfast.
I know that the education of this child will be the distinguishing event of my life, if I have the brains and perseverance to accomplish it.
We have reading lessons every day.
She has often gone with me to the post-office to mail letters, and I suppose I have repeated to her things I wrote to you.
Besides the chickens, we have several other additions to the family--two calves, a colt, and a penful of funny little pigs.
But so far nobody seems to have thought of chloroforming her, which is, I think, the only effective way of stopping the natural exercise of her faculties.
Her every waking moment is spent in the endeavour to satisfy her innate desire for knowledge, and her mind works so incessantly that we have feared for her health.
She knew that I was much troubled, and would have liked to stay near me; but I thought it best for her to sit by herself.
From the beginning, I HAVE MADE IT A PRACTICE TO ANSWER ALL HELEN'S QUESTIONS TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY IN A WAY INTELLIGIBLE TO HER, and at the same time truthfully.
She likes to have me tell her what I see in pictures.
But I seem to have lost the thread of my discourse.
I have two copies, and will send you one; but you mustn't show it to anybody.
You have probably read, ere this, Helen's second letter to the little girls.
I wished her to make the groups of threes and supposed she would then have to count them in order to know what number fifteen threes would make.
She also felt a Greek chariot, and the charioteer would have liked to take her round the ring; but she was afraid of "many swift horses."
In order to answer her questions, I have been obliged to read a great deal about animals.
Helen is as eager to have stories told her as any hearing child I ever knew.
Several little girls have learned to spell on their fingers and are very proud of the accomplishment.
TALK SHOULD BE NATURAL AND HAVE FOR ITS OBJECT AN EXCHANGE OF IDEAS.
I HAVE TRIED FROM THE BEGINNING TO TALK NATURALLY TO HELEN AND TO TEACH HER TO TELL ME ONLY THINGS THAT INTEREST HER AND ASK QUESTIONS ONLY FOR THE SAKE OF FINDING OUT WHAT SHE WANTS TO KNOW.
It is irksome because the process is so slow, and they cannot read what they have written or correct their mistakes.
Everything we have seen and heard is in the mind somewhere.
It was nothing but excitement from first to last--drives, luncheons, receptions, and all that they involve when you have an eager, tireless child like Helen on your hands.
I don't know what I should have done, had some of the young people not learned to talk with her.
But even then I can never have a quiet half hour to myself.
I did not have a chance to finish my letter yesterday.
The Sunday-school was in session when we arrived, and I wish you could have seen the sensation Helen's entrance caused.
Everybody laughed at her antics, and you would have thought they were leaving a place of amusement rather than a church.
Another said, "Damn me! but I'd give everything I own in the world to have that little girl always near me."
Dr. Keller distributed the extracts from the report that Mr. Anagnos sent me, and he could have disposed of a thousand if he had had them.
I told him he could buy some gloves if he wished, and that I would have the alphabet stamped on them.
If his experiences and observations hadn't led him to the concepts, SMALL, LARGE, GOOD, BAD, SWEET, SOUR, he would have nothing to attach the word-tags to.
If you had called these sensations respectively BLACK and WHITE, he would have adopted them as readily; but he would mean by BLACK and WHITE the same things that he means by SWEET and SOUR.
A little girl had written: I have a new dress.
A curly-headed little boy was writing: I have a large ball.
Nobody thinks of making a hearing child say, "I have a pretty new dress," at the beginning.
In my account of Helen last year, I mentioned several instances where she seemed to have called into use an inexplicable mental faculty; but it now seems to me, after carefully considering the matter, that this power may be explained by her perfect familiarity with the muscular variations of those with whom she comes into contact, caused by their emotions.
She smelt of the flowers, but showed no desire to pluck them; and, when I gathered a few for her, she refused to have them pinned on her dress.
She is never fretful or irritable, and I have never seen her impatient with her playmates because they failed to understand her.
She is very fond of all the living things at home, and she will not have them unkindly treated.
While not confining myself to any special system of instruction, I have tried to add to her general information and intelligence, to enlarge her acquaintance with things around her, and to bring her into easy and natural relations with people.
Then I will have four children.
To show how quickly she perceives and associates ideas, I will give an instance which all who have read the book will be able to appreciate.
I said to her, "Tell me, when you have read the poem through, who you think the mother is."
I have never known her to be willing to leave a lesson when she felt that there was anything in it which she did not understand.
I have a good mind!
I have found it best not to tell her that she cannot understand, because she is almost certain to become excited.
Her mind works so rapidly, that it often happens, that when I give her an example she will give me the correct answer before I have time to write out the question.
Some of these words have successive steps of meaning, beginning with what is simple and leading on to what is abstract.
I have always talked to Helen exactly as I would talk to a seeing and hearing child, and I have insisted that other people should do the same.
In selecting books for Helen to read, I have never chosen them with reference to her deafness and blindness.
The cat can have some milk, and the mouse can have some cake.
I have found it a convenient medium of communicating with Helen when she is at some distance from me, for it enables me to talk with her by tapping upon the floor with my foot.
Through Charles Kingsley's "Greek Heroes" she had become familiar with the beautiful stories of the Greek gods and goddesses, and she must have met with the words GOD, HEAVEN, SOUL, and a great many similar expressions in books.
When I subsequently talked with her she said: I have something very funny to tell you.
I have never seen a plant-child!
The daisies and the pansies will think I have forgotten them.
I have seen them.
Please tell your little pupil many things when you have much time.
Throughout Helen's education I have invariably assumed that she can understand whatever it is desirable for her to know.
Indeed, many of her eager questions would have puzzled a far wiser person than I am.
She interrupted me: Everything does not have life.
The rocks have not life, and they cannot think.
I have already told her in simple language of the beautiful and helpful life of Jesus, and of His cruel death.
At another time she asked, "Do you not think we would be very much happier always, if we did not have to die?"
In order to write one must have something to write about, and having something to write about requires some mental preparation.
Too often, I think, children are required to write before they have anything to say.
It may be true, as some maintain, that language cannot express to us much beyond what we have lived and experienced; but I have always observed that children manifest the greatest delight in the lofty, poetic language which we are too ready to think beyond their comprehension.
"Oh, please read us the rest, even if we won't understand it," they pleaded, delighted with the rhythm, and the beauty which they felt, even though they could not have explained it.
There has been much discussion of such of Miss Sullivan's statements and explanations as have been published before.
It is true that a teacher with ten times Miss Sullivan's genius could not have made a pupil so remarkable as Helen Keller out of a child born dull and mentally deficient.
To have another Helen Keller there must be another Miss Sullivan.
This difficulty and some others may be corrected when she and Miss Sullivan have more time.
Children seldom have any difficulty in understanding her; which suggests that her deliberate measured speech is like theirs, before they come to the adult trick of running all the words of a phrase into one movement of the breath.
I believe that I have hardly begun yet to know what is possible.
The only signs which I think she may have invented were her signs for SMALL and LARGE.
Other people say they have no success in making Miss Keller "hear" them.
It must be remembered that speech contributed in no way to her fundamental education, though without the ability to speak she could hardly have gone to higher schools and to college.
If you knew all the joy I feel in being able to speak to you to-day, I think you would have some idea of the value of speech to the deaf, and you would understand why I want every little deaf child in all this great world to have an opportunity to learn to speak.
No one can have read Miss Keller's autobiography without feeling that she writes unusually fine English.
No teacher could have made Helen Keller sensitive to the beauties of language and to the finer interplay of thought which demands expression in melodious word groupings.
But the extracts from Miss Sullivan's letters and from her reports, although they are clear and accurate, have not the beauty which distinguishes Miss Keller's English.
One warm, sunny day in early spring, when we were at the North, the balmy atmosphere appears to have brought to her mind the sentiment expressed by Longfellow in "Hiawatha," and she almost sings with the poet: "The ground was all aquiver with the stir of new life.
I have now (March, 1892) read to Helen "The Frost Fairies," "The Rose Fairies," and a portion of "The Dew Fairies," but she is unable to throw any light on the matter.
Teacher and I have just returned from our walk.
I wonder if you would like to have me tell you a pretty dream which I had a long time ago when I was a very little child?
But, children, you must make King Frost a visit the very first opportunity you have, and see for yourselves this wonderful palace.
At first King Frost was very angry, and the fairies trembled and crouched lower in their hiding-places, and I do not know what might have happened to them if just then a party of boys and girls had not entered the wood.
My idle fairies and my fiery enemy have taught me a new way of doing good.
I hasten to assure you that Helen could not have received any idea of the story from any of her relations or friends here, none of whom can communicate with her readily enough to impress her with the details of a story of that character.
The only person that we supposed might possibly have read the story to Helen was her friend, Mrs. Hopkins, whom she was visiting at the time in Brewster.
I have scarcely any doubt that Miss Canby's little book was read to Helen, by Mrs. Hopkins, in the summer of 1888.
She seems to have some idea of the difference between original composition and reproduction.
I still have confused memories of that illness.
When I awoke and found that all was dark and still, I suppose I thought it was night, and I must have wondered why day was so long coming.
We must have breakfast first.
I knew, too, it was immense! awful! and for a moment some of the sunshine seemed to have gone out of the day.
At times Miss Keller seemed to lack flexibility, her thoughts ran in set phrases which she seemed to have no power to revise or turn over in new ways.
I have felt a bud "shyly doff her green hood and blossom with a silken burst of sound," while the icy fingers of the snow beat against the window-panes.
Beautiful flower, you have taught me to see a little way into the hidden heart of things.
I rarely have dreams that are not in keeping with what I really think and feel, but one night my very nature seemed to change, and I stood in the eye of the world a mighty man and a terrible.
I have travelled a good deal in Concord; and everywhere, in shops, and offices, and fields, the inhabitants have appeared to me to be doing penance in a thousand remarkable ways.
It is hard to have a Southern overseer; it is worse to have a Northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself.
From the desperate city you go into the desperate country, and have to console yourself with the bravery of minks and muskrats.
If I had remembered this it would have prevented some mistakes.
Let us consider for a moment what most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or at least careful.
With respect to luxuries and comforts, the wisest have ever lived a more simple and meagre life than the poor.
When a man is warmed by the several modes which I have described, what does he want next?
If I should attempt to tell how I have desired to spend my life in years past, it would probably surprise those of my readers who are somewhat acquainted with its actual history; it would certainly astonish those who know nothing about it.
I will only hint at some of the enterprises which I have cherished.
Many are the travellers I have spoken concerning them, describing their tracks and what calls they answered to.
No doubt, many of my townsmen have met me returning from this enterprise, farmers starting for Boston in the twilight, or woodchoppers going to their work.
I have watered the red huckleberry, the sand cherry and the nettle-tree, the red pine and the black ash, the white grape and the yellow violet, which might have withered else in dry seasons.
My accounts, which I can swear to have kept faithfully, I have, indeed, never got audited, still less accepted, still less paid and settled.
However, I have not set my heart on that.
I have thought that Walden Pond would be a good place for business, not solely on account of the railroad and the ice trade; it offers advantages which it may not be good policy to divulge; it is a good port and a good foundation.
I have heard of a dog that barked at every stranger who approached his master's premises with clothes on, but was easily quieted by a naked thief.
Old shoes will serve a hero longer than they have served his valet--if a hero ever has a valet--bare feet are older than shoes, and he can make them do.
Let Harlequin be taken with a fit of the colic and his trappings will have to serve that mood too.
The manufacturers have learned that this taste is merely whimsical.
The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard or observed, the principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched.
From the cave we have advanced to roofs of palm leaves, of bark and boughs, of linen woven and stretched, of grass and straw, of boards and shingles, of stones and tiles.
I have seen Penobscot Indians, in this town, living in tents of thin cotton cloth, while the snow was nearly a foot deep around them, and I thought that they would be glad to have it deeper to keep out the wind.
Many a man is harassed to death to pay the rent of a larger and more luxurious box who would not have frozen to death in such a box as this.
Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad....
In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
What mean ye by saying that the poor ye have always with you, or that the fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge?
As I live, saith the Lord God, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.
And if the civilized man's pursuits are no worthier than the savage's, if he is employed the greater part of his life in obtaining gross necessaries and comforts merely, why should he have a better dwelling than the former?
Yet I have no doubt that that people's rulers are as wise as the average of civilized rulers.
When I think of the benefactors of the race, whom we have apotheosized as messengers from heaven, bearers of divine gifts to man, I do not see in my mind any retinue at their heels, any carload of fashionable furniture.
How, then, could I have a furnished house?
I would rather sit on a pumpkin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a velvet cushion.
But lo! men have become the tools of their tools.
We now no longer camp as for a night, but have settled down on earth and forgotten heaven.
We have adopted Christianity merely as an improved method of agri-culture.
We have built for this world a family mansion, and for the next a family tomb.
I speak understandingly on this subject, for I have made myself acquainted with it both theoretically and practically.
They can do without architecture who have no olives nor wines in the cellar.
When you have got my ornaments ready, I will wear them.
I have thus a tight shingled and plastered house, ten feet wide by fifteen long, and eight-feet posts, with a garret and a closet, a large window on each side, two trap doors, one door at the end, and a brick fireplace opposite.
To my astonishment I was informed on leaving college that I had studied navigation!--why, if I had taken one turn down the harbor I should have known more about it.
I have learned that the swiftest traveller is he that goes afoot.
You will in the meanwhile have earned your fare, and arrive there some time tomorrow, or possibly this evening, if you are lucky enough to get a job in season.
And so, if the railroad reached round the world, I think that I should keep ahead of you; and as for seeing the country and getting experience of that kind, I should have to cut your acquaintance altogether.
He should have gone up garret at once.
The dead and for the most part unmerchantable wood behind my house, and the driftwood from the pond, have supplied the remainder of my fuel.
Men and oxen exchange work; but if we consider necessary work only, the oxen will be seen to have greatly the advantage, their farm is so much the larger.
However, I should never have broken a horse or bull and taken him to board for any work he might do for me, for fear I should become a horseman or a herdsman merely; and if society seems to be the gainer by so doing, are we certain that what is one man's gain is not another's loss, and that the stable-boy has equal cause with his master to be satisfied?
This town is said to have the largest houses for oxen, cows, and horses hereabouts, and it is not behindhand in its public buildings; but there are very few halls for free worship or free speech in this county.
I might possibly invent some excuse for them and him, but I have no time for it.
Nothing was given me of which I have not rendered some account.
To meet the objections of some inveterate cavillers, I may as well state, that if I dined out occasionally, as I always had done, and I trust shall have opportunities to do again, it was frequently to the detriment of my domestic arrangements.
I have made a satisfactory dinner, satisfactory on several accounts, simply off a dish of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) which I gathered in my cornfield, boiled and salted.
Bread I at first made of pure Indian meal and salt, genuine hoe-cakes, which I baked before my fire out of doors on a shingle or the end of a stick of timber sawed off in building my house; but it was wont to get smoked and to have a piny flavor.
I tried flour also; but have at last found a mixture of rye and Indian meal most convenient and agreeable.
When you have kneaded it well, mould it, and bake it under a cover, that is, in a baking kettle.
If they cannot understand that, they cannot understand much that I have to say.
My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
Indeed, the more you have of such things the poorer you are.
Even those who seem for a long while not to have any, if you inquire more narrowly you will find have some stored in somebody's barn.
I have tried trade but I found that it would take ten years to get under way in that, and that then I should probably be on my way to the devil.
But I have since learned that trade curses everything it handles; and though you trade in messages from heaven, the whole curse of trade attaches to the business.
But all this is very selfish, I have heard some of my townsmen say.
I confess that I have hitherto indulged very little in philanthropic enterprises.
I have made some sacrifices to a sense of duty, and among others have sacrificed this pleasure also.
However, when I have thought to indulge myself in this respect, and lay their Heaven under an obligation by maintaining certain poor persons in all respects as comfortably as I maintain myself, and have even ventured so far as to make them the offer, they have one and all unhesitatingly preferred to remain poor.
You must have a genius for charity as well as for anything else.
If anything ail a man, so that he does not perform his functions, if he have a pain in his bowels even--for that is the seat of sympathy--he forthwith sets about reforming--the world.
I never dreamed of any enormity greater than I have committed.
All health and success does me good, however far off and withdrawn it may appear; all disease and failure helps to make me sad and does me evil, however much sympathy it may have with me or I with it.
I have thus surveyed the country on every side within a dozen miles of where I live.
In imagination I have bought all the farms in succession, for all were to be bought, and I knew their price.
I discovered many a site for a house not likely to be soon improved, which some might have thought too far from the village, but to my eyes the village was too far from it.
I have frequently seen a poet withdraw, having enjoyed the most valuable part of a farm, while the crusty farmer supposed that he had got a few wild apples only.
But it turned out as I have said.
All that I could say, then, with respect to farming on a large scale--I have always cultivated a garden--was, that I had had my seeds ready.
I have no doubt that time discriminates between the good and the bad; and when at last I shall plant, I shall be less likely to be disappointed.
I have never yet met a man who was quite awake.
How could I have looked him in the face?
And every few years a new lot is laid down and run over; so that, if some have the pleasure of riding on a rail, others have the misfortune to be ridden upon.
We have the Saint Vitus' dance, and cannot possibly keep our heads still.
Some give directions to be waked every half-hour, doubtless for no other purpose; and then, to pay for it, they tell what they have dreamed.
To be intoxicated by a single glass of wine; I have experienced this pleasure when I have drunk the liquor of the esoteric doctrines.
They have no cause of their own to plead, but while they enlighten and sustain the reader his common sense will not refuse them.
It will be soon enough to forget them when we have the learning and the genius which will enable us to attend to and appreciate them.
Most men do not know that any nation but the Hebrews have had a scripture.
We have a comparatively decent system of common schools, schools for infants only; but excepting the half-starved Lyceum in the winter, and latterly the puny beginning of a library suggested by the State, no school for ourselves.
Instead of noblemen, let us have noble villages of men.
I grew in those seasons like corn in the night, and they were far better than any work of the hands would have been.
My days were not days of the week, bearing the stamp of any heathen deity, nor were they minced into hours and fretted by the ticking of a clock; for I lived like the Puri Indians, of whom it is said that "for yesterday, today, and tomorrow they have only one word, and they express the variety of meaning by pointing backward for yesterday forward for tomorrow, and overhead for the passing day."
Have not men improved somewhat in punctuality since the railroad was invented?
We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside.
I see these men every day go about their business with more or less courage and content, doing more even than they suspect, and perchance better employed than they could have consciously devised.
Who can write so graphically the history of the storms they have weathered as these rents have done?
I confess, that practically speaking, when I have learned a man's real disposition, I have no hopes of changing it for the better or worse in this state of existence.
An old-fashioned man would have lost his senses or died of ennui before this.
I have my horizon bounded by woods all to myself; a distant view of the railroad where it touches the pond on the one hand, and of the fence which skirts the woodland road on the other.
I have, as it were, my own sun and moon and stars, and a little world all to myself.
I have never felt lonesome, or in the least oppressed by a sense of solitude, but once, and that was a few weeks after I came to the woods, when, for an hour, I doubted if the near neighborhood of man was not essential to a serene and healthy life.
I have found that no exertion of the legs can bring two minds much nearer to one another.
Next to us is not the workman whom we have hired, with whom we love so well to talk, but the workman whose work we are.
Confucius says truly, "Virtue does not remain as an abandoned orphan; it must of necessity have neighbors."
We have had to agree on a certain set of rules, called etiquette and politeness, to make this frequent meeting tolerable and that we need not come to open war.
I have a great deal of company in my house; especially in the morning, when nobody calls.
Shall I not have intelligence with the earth?
The bullet of your thought must have overcome its lateral and ricochet motion and fallen into its last and steady course before it reaches the ear of the hearer, else it may plow out again through the side of his head.
I have found it a singular luxury to talk across the pond to a companion on the opposite side.
As for lodging, it is true they were but poorly entertained, though what they found an inconvenience was no doubt intended for an honor; but as far as eating was concerned, I do not see how the Indians could have done better.
Vice and disease, which cast such a sombre moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any existence for him.
In the winter he had a fire by which at noon he warmed his coffee in a kettle; and as he sat on a log to eat his dinner the chickadees would sometimes come round and alight on his arm and peck at the potato in his fingers; and he said that he "liked to have the little fellers about him."
It would have suggested many things to a philosopher to have dealings with him.
I have rarely met a fellowman on such promising ground--it was so simple and sincere and so true all that he said.
I require of a visitor that he be not actually starving, though he may have the very best appetite in the world, however he got it.
I have too good a memory to make that necessary.
The last have nibbled for me a quarter of an acre clean.
That's Roman wormwood--that's pigweed--that's sorrel--that's piper-grass--have at him, chop him up, turn his roots upward to the sun, don't let him have a fibre in the shade, if you do he'll turn himself t' other side up and be as green as a leek in two days.
It was on the whole a rare amusement, which, continued too long, might have become a dissipation.
But above all harvest as early as possible, if you would escape frosts and have a fair and salable crop; you may save much loss by this means.
We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him.
This broad field which I have looked at so long looks not to me as the principal cultivator, but away from me to influences more genial to it, which water and make it green.
These beans have results which are not harvested by me.
I have heard of many going astray even in the village streets, when the darkness was so thick that you could cut it with a knife, as the saying is.
These take place only in communities where some have got more than is sufficient while others have not enough.
It is a vulgar error to suppose that you have tasted huckleberries who never plucked them.
Sometimes, after staying in a village parlor till the family had all retired, I have returned to the woods, and, partly with a view to the next day's dinner, spent the hours of midnight fishing from a boat by moonlight, serenaded by owls and foxes, and hearing, from time to time, the creaking note of some unknown bird close at hand.
All our Concord waters have two colors at least; one when viewed at a distance, and another, more proper, close at hand.
I have seen our river, when, the landscape being covered with snow, both water and ice were almost as green as grass.
It is well known that a large plate of glass will have a green tint, owing, as the makers say, to its "body," but a small piece of the same will be colorless.
Successive nations perchance have drank at, admired, and fathomed it, and passed away, and still its water is green and pellucid as ever.
Yet perchance the first who came to this well have left some trace of their footsteps.
I have sometimes disturbed a fish hawk sitting on a white pine over the water; but I doubt if it is ever profaned by the wind of a gull, like Fair Haven.
I have in my mind's eye the western, indented with deep bays, the bolder northern, and the beautifully scalloped southern shore, where successive capes overlap each other and suggest unexplored coves between.
The trees have ample room to expand on the water side, and each sends forth its most vigorous branch in that direction.
Standing on the smooth sandy beach at the east end of the pond, in a calm September afternoon, when a slight haze makes the opposite shore-line indistinct, I have seen whence came the expression, "the glassy surface of a lake."
Many men have been likened to it, but few deserve that honor.
Though the woodchoppers have laid bare first this shore and then that, and the Irish have built their sties by it, and the railroad has infringed on its border, and the ice-men have skimmed it once, it is itself unchanged, the same water which my youthful eyes fell on; all the change is in me.
I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
It is by this time mere vegetable mould and undistinguishable pond shore, through which rushes and flags have pushed up.
Since the wood-cutters, and the railroad, and I myself have profaned Walden, perhaps the most attractive, if not the most beautiful, of all our lakes, the gem of the woods, is White Pond;--a poor name from its commonness, whether derived from the remarkable purity of its waters or the color of its sands.
They are too pure to have a market value; they contain no muck.
If it had lasted longer it might have tinged my employments and life.
This was probably the same phenomenon to which I have referred, which is especially observed in the morning, but also at other times, and even by moonlight.
Perhaps I have owed to this employment and to hunting, when quite young, my closest acquaintance with Nature.
They early introduce us to and detain us in scenery with which otherwise, at that age, we should have little acquaintance.
I have actually fished from the same kind of necessity that the first fishers did.
I have found repeatedly, of late years, that I cannot fish without falling a little in self-respect.
I have tried it again and again.
A little bread or a few potatoes would have done as well, with less trouble and filth.
All nature is your congratulation, and you have cause momentarily to bless yourself.
It is a little star-dust caught, a segment of the rainbow which I have clutched.
We have heard of this virtue, but we know not what it is.
We speak conformably to the rumor which we have heard.
I have not heard so much as a locust over the sweet-fern these three hours.
I wonder how much they have reaped.
I have water from the spring, and a loaf of brown bread on the shelf.--Hark!
That's the greatest thing I have seen to-day.
I thought, as I have my living to get, and have not eaten to-day, that I might go a-fishing.
It is the only trade I have learned.
Or, if you choose to go farther, it will not be unwise, for I have found the increase of fair bait to be very nearly as the squares of the distances.
My thoughts have left no track, and I cannot find the path again.
Why has man just these species of animals for his neighbors; as if nothing but a mouse could have filled this crevice?
You may even tread on them, or have your eyes on them for a minute, without discovering them.
It was the only battle which I have ever witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the battle was raging; internecine war; the red republicans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on the other.
I took up the chip on which the three I have particularly described were struggling, carried it into my house, and placed it under a tumbler on my window-sill, in order to see the issue.
A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
When I began to have a fire at evening, before I plastered my house, the chimney carried smoke particularly well, because of the numerous chinks between the boards.
Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."
I brought over some whiter and cleaner sand for this purpose from the opposite shore of the pond in a boat, a sort of conveyance which would have tempted me to go much farther if necessary.
I might have got good limestone within a mile or two and burned it myself, if I had cared to do so.
It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.
I love to have mine before my window, and the more chips the better to remind me of my pleasing work.
The laborer, looking into it at evening, purifies his thoughts of the dross and earthiness which they have accumulated during the day.
I have seen bricks amid the oak copse there.
If he had lived I should have made him fight his battles over again.
He died in the road at the foot of Brister's Hill shortly after I came to the woods, so that I have not remembered him as a neighbor.
Might not the basket, stable-broom, mat-making, corn-parching, linen-spinning, and pottery business have thrived here, making the wilderness to blossom like the rose, and a numerous posterity have inherited the land of their fathers?
We talked of rude and simple times, when men sat about large fires in cold, bracing weather, with clear heads; and when other dessert failed, we tried our teeth on many a nut which wise squirrels have long since abandoned, for those which have the thickest shells are commonly empty.
They never consulted with books, and know and can tell much less than they have done.
He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore, and having fastened the end of the line to a stick to prevent its being pulled through, have passed the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and tied a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, would show when he had a bite.
I have visited two such Bottomless Ponds in one walk in this neighborhood.
Many have believed that Walden reached quite through to the other side of the globe.
William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow.
No doubt many a smiling valley with its stretching cornfields occupies exactly such a "horrid chasm," from which the waters have receded, though it requires the insight and the far sight of the geologist to convince the unsuspecting inhabitants of this fact.
Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which we detect; but the harmony which results from a far greater number of seemingly conflicting, but really concurring, laws, which we have not detected, is still more wonderful.
What I have observed of the pond is no less true in ethics.
I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue.
So the hollows about this pond will, sometimes, in the winter, be filled with a greenish water somewhat like its own, but the next day will have frozen blue.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
So, also, every one who has waded about the shores of the pond in summer must have perceived how much warmer the water is close to the shore, where only three or four inches deep, than a little distance out, and on the surface where it is deep, than near the bottom.
Also, as I have said, the bubbles themselves within the ice operate as burning-glasses to melt the ice beneath.
Who would have suspected so large and cold and thick-skinned a thing to be so sensitive?
Fogs and rains and warmer suns are gradually melting the snow; the days have grown sensibly longer; and I see how I shall get through the winter without adding to my wood-pile, for large fires are no longer necessary.
At length the sun's rays have attained the right angle, and warm winds blow up mist and rain and melt the snowbanks, and the sun, dispersing the mist, smiles on a checkered landscape of russet and white smoking with incense, through which the traveller picks his way from islet to islet, cheered by the music of a thousand tinkling rills and rivulets whose veins are filled with the blood of winter which they are bearing off.
The atoms have already learned this law, and are pregnant by it.
Even ice begins with delicate crystal leaves, as if it had flowed into moulds which the fronds of waterplants have impressed on the watery mirror.
But this spring it broke up more steadily, as I have said.
It appeared to have no companion in the universe--sporting there alone--and to need none but the morning and the ether with which it played.
We can never have enough of nature.
The sulphur-like pollen of the pitch pine soon covered the pond and the stones and rotten wood along the shore, so that you could have collected a barrelful.
Yet some can be patriotic who have no self-respect, and sacrifice the greater to the less.
They love the soil which makes their graves, but have no sympathy with the spirit which may still animate their clay.
He declared that "a soldier who fights in the ranks does not require half so much courage as a footpad"--"that honor and religion have never stood in the way of a well-considered and a firm resolve."
It is true, I fear, that others may have fallen into it, and so helped to keep it open.
If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be.
"They pretend," as I hear, "that the verses of Kabir have four different senses; illusion, spirit, intellect, and the exoteric doctrine of the Vedas"; but in this part of the world it is considered a ground for complaint if a man's writings admit of more than one interpretation.
I do not suppose that I have attained to obscurity, but I should be proud if no more fatal fault were found with my pages on this score than was found with the Walden ice.
Say what you have to say, not what you ought.
You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, glorious hours, even in a poorhouse.
I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, as in a palace.
"So it has," answered the latter, "but you have not got half way to it yet."
I should have done better had I called on him.
"Yes, we have done great deeds, and sung divine songs, which shall never die"--that is, as long as we can remember them.
Most have not delved six feet beneath the surface, nor leaped as many above it.
The government itself, which is only the mode which the people have chosen to execute their will, is equally liable to be abused and perverted before the people can act through it.
Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
But it is not the less necessary for this; for the people must have some complicated machinery or other, and hear its din, to satisfy that idea of government which they have.
The only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think right.
They have no doubt that it is a damnable business in which they are concerned; they are all peaceably inclined.
They have the same sort of worth only as horses and dogs.
If I have unjustly wrested a plank from a drowning man, I must restore it to him though I drown myself.
They will wait, well disposed, for others to remedy the evil, that they may no longer have it to regret.
It is not a man's duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself to the eradication of any, even the most enormous wrong; he may still properly have other concerns to engage him; but it is his duty, at least, to wash his hands of it, and, if he gives it no thought longer, not to give it practically his support.
After the first blush of sin comes its indifference; and from immoral it becomes, as it were, unmoral, and not quite unnecessary to that life which we have made.
And have not the same reasons prevented the State from resisting the Union, which have prevented them from resisting the State?
Men generally, under such a government as this, think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.
Why does it not encourage its citizens to be on the alert to point out its faults, and do better than it would have them?
I have other affairs to attend to.
I think that it is enough if they have God on their side, without waiting for that other one.
You must live within yourself, and depend upon yourself always tucked up and ready for a start, and not have many affairs.
I did not see why the lyceum should not present its tax-bill, and have the State to back its demand, as well as the Church.
If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list.
As they could not reach me, they had resolved to punish my body; just as boys, if they cannot come at some person against whom they have a spite, will abuse his dog.
I do not hear of men being forced to have this way or that by masses of men.
If they pay the tax from a mistaken interest in the individual taxed, to save his property, or prevent his going to jail, it is because they have not considered wisely how far they let their private feelings interfere with the public good.
They speak of moving society, but have no resting-place without it.
"I have never made an effort," he says, "and never propose to make an effort; I have never countenanced an effort, and never mean to countenance an effort, to disturb the arrangement as originally made, by which the various States came into the Union."
Associations formed elsewhere, springing from a feeling of humanity, or any other cause, have nothing whatever to do with it.
They have never received any encouragement from me, and they never will.
They have no genius or talent for comparatively humble questions of taxation and finance, commerce and manufacturers and agriculture.
It can have no pure right over my person and property but what I concede to it.
But I warn you, if you don't tell me that this means war, if you still try to defend the infamies and horrors perpetrated by that Antichrist--I really believe he is Antichrist--I will have nothing more to do with you and you are no longer my friend, no longer my 'faithful slave,' as you call yourself!
I see I have frightened you--sit down and tell me all the news.
If you have nothing better to do, Count (or Prince), and if the prospect of spending an evening with a poor invalid is not too terrible, I shall be very charmed to see you tonight between 7 and 10--Annette Scherer.
That is the one thing I have faith in!
And what have they promised?
"Mind, Annette, I hope you have not played a wicked trick on me," she added, turning to her hostess.
I have asked Golitsyn and he has refused.
What have they done for Louis XVII, for the Queen, or for Madame Elizabeth?
Monsieur le Vicomte quite rightly supposes that matters have already gone too far.
"From what I have heard," said Pierre, blushing and breaking into the conversation, "almost all the aristocracy has already gone over to Bonaparte's side."
"Yes, if having obtained power, without availing himself of it to commit murder he had restored it to the rightful king, I should have called him a great man," remarked the vicomte.
Have people since the Revolution become happier?
She must have two footmen behind her carriage, and very big ones.
What have you done to Mlle Scherer?
Well, have you at last decided on anything?
How stupid you men all are not to have married her!
Excuse me for saying so, but you have no sense about women.
No, Andrew, I must say you have changed.
I have long wanted to ask you, Andrew, why you have changed so to me?
What have I done to you?
You are going to the war and have no pity for me.
I assure you I myself have experienced... and so... because...
"Good night, Lise," said he, rising and courteously kissing her hand as he would have done to a stranger.
"Let us go and have supper," he said with a sigh, going to the door.
And all you have of hope and strength merely weighs you down and torments you with regret.
You have everything before you, everything.
"What would you have, my dear fellow?" answered Pierre, shrugging his shoulders.
"You have a try, Hercules," said he, turning to Pierre.
Have you gone mad?...
And they have had to suffer for it.
"What a nice figure the policeman must have cut, my dear!" shouted the count, dying with laughter.
They wanted to introduce him to me, but I quite declined: I have my daughters to consider.
I have never seen a handsomer man.
"I have already told you, Papa," said his son, "that if you don't wish to let me go, I'll stay.
We have engaged an Italian to give her lessons.
I have heard that it harms the voice to train it at that age.
I have something to tell you.
The countess wished to have a tÃªte-Ã -tÃªte talk with the friend of her childhood, Princess Anna Mikhaylovna, whom she had not seen properly since she returned from Petersburg.
"Vera," she said to her eldest daughter who was evidently not a favorite, "how is it you have so little tact?
"If you had told me sooner, Mamma, I would have gone," she replied as she rose to go to her own room.
"How often have I asked you not to take my things?" she said.
"You have a room of your own," and she took the inkstand from Nicholas.
"All have secrets of their own," answered Natasha, getting warmer.
I have nothing to complain of.
You have no heart!
I have not seen him since we acted together at the Rumyantsovs' theatricals.
My wretched lawsuit takes all I have and makes no progress.
Would you believe it, I have literally not a penny and don't know how to equip Boris.
I need five hundred rubles, and have only one twenty-five-ruble note.
But I have promised and will do it for your sake.
"My friend," said Anna Mikhaylovna in gentle tones, addressing the hall porter, "I know Count Cyril Vladimirovich is very ill... that's why I have come...
Believe me, Prince, a mother's heart will never forget what you have done for us.
I have come, and am at your service to help you nurse my uncle.
I imagine what you have gone through, and she sympathetically turned up her eyes.
The count is suffering physically and mentally, and apparently you have done your best to increase his mental sufferings.
He sent for Pierre and said to him: My dear fellow, if you are going to behave here as you did in Petersburg, you will end very badly; that is all I have to say to you.
But before Pierre--who at that moment imagined himself to be Napoleon in person and to have just effected the dangerous crossing of the Straits of Dover and captured London--could pronounce Pitt's sentence, he saw a well-built and handsome young officer entering his room.
I have come with my mother to see the count, but it seems he is not well.
I know nothing about it and have not thought about it.
I am glad I have spoken out fully.
What you have just said is good, very good.
We have not met for such a long time... not since we were children.
I could not have done it myself, I should not have had the courage, but it's splendid.
I am very glad to have made your acquaintance.
It's queer," he added after a pause, "that you should have suspected me!"
What a saute of game au madere we are to have, my dear!
Berg evidently enjoyed narrating all this, and did not seem to suspect that others, too, might have their own interests.
"You have only lately arrived?" the countess asked him.
You have not yet seen my husband?
You have been in Paris recently, I believe?
Natasha, who sat opposite, was looking at Boris as girls of thirteen look at the boy they are in love with and have just kissed for the first time.
I have four sons in the army but still I don't fret.
What sweets are we going to have? and Natasha's voice sounded still more firm and resolute.
I have asked, whispered Natasha to her little brother and to Pierre, glancing at him again.
"Nicholas is going away in a week's time, his... papers... have come... he told me himself... but still I should not cry," and she showed a paper she held in her hand--with the verses Nicholas had written, "still, I should not cry, but you can't... no one can understand... what a soul he has!"
But Nicholas is my cousin... one would have to... the Metropolitan himself... and even then it can't be done.
What have I done to her?
Natasha, what have I done to deserve it?...
You know I have told him all about it.
So he may have something to drink?
"You have made the place warm, I must say," he remarked.
Well, sit down: let's have a talk.
This might have been taken as an expression of sorrow and devotion, or of weariness and hope of resting before long.
Do you know I have sent for Pierre?
"And this is gratitude--this is recognition for those who have sacrificed everything for his sake!" she cried.
"Who sacrificed everything for him," chimed in the princess, who would again have risen had not the prince still held her fast, "though he never could appreciate it.
No, I have a wicked heart.
I value your friendship and wish you to have as good an opinion of me.
Yes; if I have a sin, a great sin, it is hatred of that vile woman! almost shrieked the princess, now quite changed.
I have loved you like a son from the first.
He seemed to have grown thinner since the morning; his eyes seemed larger than usual when he glanced round and noticed Pierre.
Pierre did not eat anything though he would very much have liked to.
Dear princess, I beg and implore you, have some pity on him!
With those about him, from his daughter to his serfs, the prince was sharp and invariably exacting, so that without being a hardhearted man he inspired such fear and respect as few hardhearted men would have aroused.
I don't want to have you like our silly ladies.
I have looked at it.
As for the past two years people have amused themselves by finding husbands for me (most of whom I don't even know), the matchmaking chronicles of Moscow now speak of me as the future Countess Bezukhova.
But you will understand that I have no desire for the post.
That is all I have been able to find out about him.
He always seemed to me to have an excellent heart, and that is the quality I value most in people.
I never could understand the fondness some people have for confusing their minds by dwelling on mystical books that merely awaken their doubts and excite their imagination, giving them a bent for exaggeration quite contrary to Christian simplicity.
I have had a letter from my brother, who announces his speedy arrival at Bald Hills with his wife.
You should have seen the state of the mothers, wives, and children of the men who were going and should have heard the sobs.
I have already dispatched mine.
I have written to my poor mother, said the smiling Mademoiselle Bourienne rapidly, in her pleasant mellow tones and with guttural r's.
"Ah, dear friend," replied Princess Mary, "I have asked you never to warn me of the humor my father is in.
I do not allow myself to judge him and would not have others do so.
Mary, you have got thinner?...
And you have grown stouter!...
He is leaving me here, God knows why, when he might have had promotion...
You at least must tackle him properly, or else if he goes on like this he'll soon have us, too, for his subjects!
"Yes, Father, I have come to you and brought my wife who is pregnant," said Prince Andrew, following every movement of his father's face with an eager and respectful look.
Well, go on," he continued, returning to his hobby; "tell me how the Germans have taught you to fight Bonaparte by this new science you call 'strategy.'"
Why, I have not yet had time to settle down!
I am glad to have her.
At the appointed hour the prince, powdered and shaven, entered the dining room.
It would have puzzled the devil himself!
No, my dear boy," he continued, "you and your generals won't get on against Buonaparte; you'll have to call in the French, so that birds of a feather may fight together.
No, lad, either you fellows have all lost your wits, or I have outlived mine.
And only idlers have failed to beat the Germans.
You have changed so, Andrusha, she added, as if to explain such a question.
What a treasure of a wife you have, said she, sitting down on the sofa, facing her brother.
I have grown so fond of her.
But think, Andrew: for a young society woman to be buried in the country during the best years of her life, all alone--for Papa is always busy, and I... well, you know what poor resources I have for entertaining a woman used to the best society.
As Sterne says: 'We don't love people so much for the good they have done us, as for the good we have done them.'
"You are good in every way, Andrew, but you have a kind of intellectual pride," said the princess, following the train of her own thoughts rather than the trend of the conversation--"and that's a great sin.
Andrew..." she said timidly after a moment's silence, "I have a great favor to ask of you."
Her brother would have taken the icon, but she stopped him.
I do not think I have complained of my wife to you, Masha, or blamed her.
I have said nothing to you, but you have already been talked to.
Know this, Masha: I can't reproach, have not reproached, and never shall reproach my wife with anything, and I cannot reproach myself with anything in regard to her; and that always will be so in whatever circumstances I may be placed.
If you have anything to say, say it.
They have been telling her things.
Give this letter to Michael Ilarionovich. * I have written that he should make use of you in proper places and not keep you long as an adjutant: a bad position!
"Remember this, Prince Andrew, if they kill you it will hurt me, your old father..." he paused unexpectedly, and then in a querulous voice suddenly shrieked: "but if I hear that you have not behaved like a son of Nicholas Bolkonski, I shall be ashamed!"
"You need not have said that to me, Father," said the son with a smile.
"I also wanted to ask you," continued Prince Andrew, "if I'm killed and if I have a son, do not let him be taken away from you--as I said yesterday... let him grow up with you....
"Not let the wife have him?" said the old man, and laughed.
Shall we have time to change clothes?
What have you been after?
Whom have you got there dressed up as a Hungarian? said the commander with an austere gibe.
"I request you to have the goodness to change your coat," he said as he turned away.
"We all have our weaknesses," said Kutuzov smiling and walking away from him.
He used to have a predilection for Bacchus.
Have you a complaint to make?
Still, one must have pity on a young man in misfortune.
See, the fifth company is turning into the village already... they will have their buckwheat cooked before we reach our quarters.
They might call a halt here or we'll have to do another four miles without eating.
"I say, come round some evening and we'll have a game of faro!" said Zherkov.
Why, have you too much money?
I should long ago have joined the archduke.
And Kutuzov smiled in a way that seemed to say, You are quite at liberty not to believe me and I don't even care whether you do or not, but you have no grounds for telling me so.
We have fully concentrated forces of nearly seventy thousand men with which to attack and defeat the enemy should he cross the Lech.
"But you know the wise maxim your excellency, advising one to expect the worst," said the Austrian general, evidently wishing to have done with jests and to come to business.
Here are two letters from Count Nostitz and here is one from His Highness the Archduke Ferdinand and here are these," he said, handing him several papers, "make a neat memorandum in French out of all this, showing all the news we have had of the movements of the Austrian army, and then give it to his excellency."
I consider myself fortunate to have such a subordinate by me.
When he saw Mack and heard the details of his disaster he understood that half the campaign was lost, understood all the difficulties of the Russian army's position, and vividly imagined what awaited it and the part he would have to play.
"Your excellency," said he in German, stepping forward and addressing the Austrian general, "I have the honor to congratulate you."
I have the honor to congratulate you.
* (2) "It is all very well for that good-for-nothing fellow of whom you have made a friend, but not for you, not for you."
Will you have coffee?
"Then I'll have it brought round," said Rostov wishing to avoid Telyanin, and he went out to give the order.
"Have you told them to bring the horse?" asked Telyanin, getting up and looking carelessly about him.
Have you got it, Denisov?
"Please, Denisov, let me lend you some: I have some, you know," said Rostov, blushing.
Really I have some, Rostov repeated.
Where have you put it, Wostov?
Dear me, can I have forgotten?
"I must have that purse, I tell you," shouted Denisov, shaking his orderly by the shoulders and knocking him against the wall.
Well, let me have it, young man, I'm going.
Are you going to have lunch too?
Now then, let me have it.
We must have an explanation...
I have an old father and mother!...
Perhaps I ought not to have spoken before them, but I am not a diplomatist.
Well, have it so, and you talked a lot of nonsense to him and must apologize.
Have the officer tried and disgrace the whole regiment?
Have a little fun to pass the time.
I have seen as much before now, mate!
"He shouldn't have taken so many men," said the officer of the suite.
"True enough," answered Nesvitski; "two smart fellows could have done the job just as well."
You must have a rest.
I could not have a more welcome visitor, said Bilibin as he came out to meet Prince Andrew.
He was not one of those many diplomats who are esteemed because they have certain negative qualities, avoid doing certain things, and speak French.
True, we have no Prater here...
"Wait, I have not finished..." he said to Prince Andrew, seizing him by the arm, "I believe that intervention will be stronger than nonintervention.
"I cannot inform Your Majesty at what o'clock the battle began at the front, but at Durrenstein, where I was, our attack began after five in the afternoon," replied Bolkonski growing more animated and expecting that he would have a chance to give a reliable account, which he had ready in his mind, of all he knew and had seen.
The French have abandoned the left bank?
They have crossed without striking a blow!
Why, the French have crossed the bridge that Auersperg was defending, and the bridge was not blown up: so Murat is now rushing along the road to Brunn and will be here in a day or two.
They won't let us pass, we are left behind and have lost our people...
But sit down and have something to eat.
"Well, I have got all I need into packs for two horses," said Nesvitski.
"Second line... have you written it?" he continued dictating to the clerk.
"Well, have you finished?" said he to Kozlovski.
"I have the honor to present myself," repeated Prince Andrew rather loudly, handing Kutuzov an envelope.
You command only my advance guard, and have no right to arrange an armistice without my order.
Officers are nothing when they have no powers; this one had none....
I would have offered you something.
Prince Andrew halted to have a look at the French.
"We have orders to drive you off here, and we shall drive you off," said Dolokhov.
Now, Sidorov, you have a try!
I have fallen, I am killed!
"Can something bad have happened to me?" he wondered as he got up: and at that moment he felt that something superfluous was hanging on his benumbed left arm.
They can't have wanted to kill me.
I have taken an officer prisoner.
He decided to have the guns removed from their positions and withdrawn in his presence.
With the soldier, an infantry officer with a bandaged cheek came up to the bonfire, and addressing Tushin asked him to have the guns moved a trifle to let a wagon go past.
Gentlemen, I thank you all; all arms have behaved heroically: infantry, cavalry, and artillery.
You might have taken some from the covering troops.
It seemed so natural to Pierre that everyone should like him, and it would have seemed so unnatural had anyone disliked him, that he could not but believe in the sincerity of those around him.
Here is something I have received from the chancellor.
Wait a bit, I have something in view for you this evening.
So you have never noticed before how beautiful I am?
It is good to have a friend like the prince, she said, smiling at Prince Vasili.
She paused, as women always do, expecting something after they have mentioned their age.
I have myself said she is stupid, he thought.
Can it be that I have none?
And besides, what have I done to bring it about?
If I hadn't this headache I'd have stayed longer.
This happiness is for those who have not in them what there is in you.
"Well, Lelya?" he asked, turning instantly to his daughter and addressing her with the careless tone of habitual tenderness natural to parents who have petted their children from babyhood, but which Prince Vasili had only acquired by imitating other parents.
I'll teach you to think! and lifting his stick he swung it and would have hit Alpatych, the overseer, had not the latter instinctively avoided the blow.
"So we are to have visitors, mon prince?" remarked Mademoiselle Bourienne, unfolding her white napkin with her rosy fingers.
They'll be announcing that the gentlemen are in the drawing room and we shall have to go down, and you have not smartened yourself up at all!
You have a maroon dress, have it fetched.
Oh!" and she shook her finger at him, "I have even heard of your doings in Paris!"
"And didn't Hippolyte tell you?" asked Prince Vasili, turning to his son and seizing the little princess' arm as if she would have run away and he had just managed to catch her, "didn't he tell you how he himself was pining for the dear princess, and how she showed him the door?
You have done up your hair in this new way for the visitors, and before the visitors I tell you that in future you are never to dare to change your way of dress without my consent.
And don't I see that that idiot had eyes only for Bourienne--I shall have to get rid of her.
If she has no pride for herself she might at least have some for my sake!
They have gone to bed and put out their lights, your excellency.
"I have had a proposition made me concerning you," he said with an unnatural smile.
"I expect you have guessed that Prince Vasili has not come and brought his pupil with him" (for some reason Prince Bolkonski referred to Anatole as a "pupil") "for the sake of my beautiful eyes.
"No, Princess, I have lost your affection forever!" said Mademoiselle Bourienne.
Decide, my dear, good, gentle Marie, whom I have always loved as a daughter!
Prince, what I have said is all there is in my heart.
I am very glad to have seen you.
"Very, very glad to have seen you," repeated he, embracing Prince Vasili.
Perhaps I might have done the same!... thought Princess Mary.
How strange, how extraordinary, how joyful it seemed, that her son, the scarcely perceptible motion of whose tiny limbs she had felt twenty years ago within her, that son about whom she used to have quarrels with the too indulgent count, that son who had first learned to say "pear" and then "granny," that this son should now be away in a foreign land amid strange surroundings, a manly warrior doing some kind of man's work of his own, without help or guidance.
Dear me, how you have changed!
And we too have had a splendid march.
"Yes, and I have some money and a letter to give you," he added.
Oh, what a pig I am, not to have written and to have given them such a fright!
Well, have you sent Gabriel for some wine?
All right let's have some!
"Why have you thrown that away?" asked Boris.
Rostov was a truthful young man and would on no account have told a deliberate lie.
Our stories have some weight, not like the stories of those fellows on the staff who get rewards without doing anything!
Only when Prince Andrew was gone did Rostov think of what he ought to have said.
How gladly would he have died at once for his Tsar!
You have earned the St. George's standards and will be worthy of them.
All were then more confident of victory than the winning of two battles would have made them.
I have been thinking about you.
But this is what we'll do: I have a good friend, an adjutant general and an excellent fellow, Prince Dolgorukov; and though you may not know it, the fact is that now Kutuzov with his staff and all of us count for nothing.
Ah, my dear fellow, what a battle we have gained!
But I have come to you, Prince, as a petitioner on behalf of this young man.
"Yes, you have seen him?" said Prince Andrew.
"Despite my great respect for old Kutuzov," he continued, "we should be a nice set of fellows if we were to wait about and so give him a chance to escape, or to trick us, now that we certainly have him in our hands!
"If he could attack us, he would have done so today," said he.
You have heard them, and we shall all do our duty.
All these memories will be no more, none of them will have any meaning for me.
Tomorrow perhaps, even certainly, I have a presentiment that for the first time I shall have to show all I can do.
I saw them this evening on that knoll; if they had retreated they would have withdrawn from that too....
"It's plain that they have not all gone yet, Prince," said Bagration.
They are the same battalions you broke at Hollabrunn and have pursued ever since to this place.
"There now, the Kurskies have also gone past," was being said in the ranks.
It's wonderful what a lot of our troops have gathered, lads!
Why have we stopped?
Or have we already come up against the French?
You should have gone on long ago, now you won't get there till evening.
And how happy I am to have found it at last!
"Have you?" he said.
Suddenly he heard musket fire quite close in front of him and behind our troops, where he could never have expected the enemy to be.
He might... not only might but should, have gone up to the sovereign.
"What have I done?" thought he.
But he heard the words as he might have heard the buzzing of a fly.
The Emperor without waiting for an answer turned away and said to one of the officers as he went: Have these gentlemen attended to and taken to my bivouac; let my doctor, Larrey, examine their wounds.
You shall have three rubles for vodka--get on!
Let me have a look at you, your excellency.
"No, no!" cried Natasha, "she and I have already talked it over.
"Yes, they have taken a wise decision," he thought, "I must remain free."
Oh, how glad I am to have you!
Have you seen Duport?
We'll all have breakfast together.
There will be time enough to think about love when I want to, but now I have no time.
"Shall we have three cold dishes then?" asked the cook.
We must have another entree.
I must have two hundred pots here on Friday.
I must have singers too.
I shall have my own orchestra, but shouldn't we get the gypsy singers as well?
"What have the young people come to nowadays, eh, Feoktist?" said he.
That's so, your excellency, all they have to do is to eat a good dinner, but providing it and serving it all up, that's not their business!
I have to see him in any case.
All Moscow repeated Prince Dolgorukov's saying: "If you go on modeling and modeling you must get smeared with clay," suggesting consolation for our defeat by the memory of former victories; and the words of Rostopchin, that French soldiers have to be incited to battle by highfalutin words, and Germans by logical arguments to show them that it is more dangerous to run away than to advance, but that Russian soldiers only need to be restrained and held back!
By his age he should have belonged to the younger men, but by his wealth and connections he belonged to the groups of old and honored guests, and so he went from one group to another.
He walked shyly and awkwardly over the parquet floor of the reception room, not knowing what to do with his hands; he was more accustomed to walk over a plowed field under fire, as he had done at the head of the Kursk regiment at Schon Grabern--and he would have found that easier.
Someone obligingly took the dish from Bagration (or he would, it seemed, have held it till evening and have gone in to dinner with it) and drew his attention to the verses.
Courage conquest guarantees; Have we not Bagration?
It would be particularly pleasant to him to dishonor my name and ridicule me, just because I have exerted myself on his behalf, befriended him, and helped him.
I have no right to, and can't, believe it.
"You shan't have it!" he said distinctly.
"I should perhaps have done the same thing in his place," thought Pierre.
It's even certain that I should have done the same, then why this duel, this murder?
"I should not be doing my duty, Count," he said in timid tones, "and should not justify your confidence and the honor you have done me in choosing me for your second, if at this grave, this very grave, moment I did not tell you the whole truth.
Denisov first went to the barrier and announced: As the adve'sawies have wefused a weconciliation, please pwoceed.
I don't matter, but I have killed her, killed...
I have killed her lover, yes, killed my wife's lover.
Now I have spoken that terrible word to myself all has become clear.
She laughed contemptuously and said she was not a fool to want to have children, and that she was not going to have any children by me.
But if you are alive--live: tomorrow you'll die as I might have died an hour ago.
What have I...? stammered Pierre.
Well, what have you proved?
God knows what he would have done at that moment had Helene not fled from the room.
"You did not get my letter?" he asked, and not waiting for a reply-- which he would not have received, for the princess was unable to speak-- he turned back, rapidly mounted the stairs again with the doctor who had entered the hall after him (they had met at the last post station), and again embraced his sister.
I love you all and have done no harm to anyone; why must I suffer so?
"What have they taken a baby in there for?" thought Prince Andrew in the first second.
"I love you all, and have done no harm to anyone; and what have you done to me?"--said her charming, pathetic, dead face.
"Ah, what have you done to me?" it still seemed to say, and Prince Andrew felt that something gave way in his soul and that he was guilty of a sin he could neither remedy nor forget.
The old man too came up and kissed the waxen little hands that lay quietly crossed one on the other on her breast, and to him, too, her face seemed to say: "Ah, what have you done to me, and why?"
Have these people no feeling, or honor?
Who doesn't have intrigues nowadays?
Why, if he was so jealous, as I see things he should have shown it sooner, but he lets it go on for months.
I have an adored, a priceless mother, and two or three friends--you among them--and as for the rest I only care about them in so far as they are harmful or useful.
I have not yet met that divine purity and devotion I look for in women.
And Sonya, though she would never have dared to say so, knew it and blushed scarlet every time Dolokhov appeared.
Nicholas understood that something must have happened between Sonya and Dolokhov before dinner, and with the kindly sensitiveness natural to him was very gentle and wary with them both at dinner.
"If I have time," answered Nicholas.
But I promised the Arkharovs; they have a party.
"Yes, my Sonya could not have done otherwise!" thought Nicholas.
"I have already refused," she said hurriedly.
"I have no money with me," he said.
On the previous Sunday the old count had given his son two thousand rubles, and though he always disliked speaking of money difficulties had told Nicholas that this was all he could let him have till May, and asked him to be more economical this time.
With a sinking heart he watched Dolokhov's hands and thought, "Now then, make haste and let me have this card and I'll take my cap and drive home to supper with Denisov, Natasha, and Sonya, and will certainly never touch a card again."
Instead of sixteen hundred rubles he had a long column of figures scored against him, which he had reckoned up to ten thousand, but that now, as he vaguely supposed, must have risen to fifteen thousand.
And it's not my fault either," he thought to himself, "I have done nothing wrong.
Have I killed anyone, or insulted or wished harm to anyone?
Then when am I to have it?
Nicholas, have you come?
And suddenly, in the most casual tone, which made him feel ashamed of himself, he said, as if merely asking his father to let him have the carriage to drive to town:
Papa, I have come on a matter of business.
You should have seen how he said it!
I shall speak to him myself, said the countess, indignant that they should have dared to treat this little Natasha as grown up.
"Vasili Dmitrich, I thank you for the honor," she said, with an embarrassed voice, though it sounded severe to Denisov--"but my daughter is so young, and I thought that, as my son's friend, you would have addressed yourself first to me.
In that case you would not have obliged me to give this refusal.
"Countess, I have done w'ong," Denisov went on in an unsteady voice, "but believe me, I so adore your daughter and all your family that I would give my life twice over..."
Will you have the portmanteaus brought in?
The postmaster came in and began obsequiously to beg his excellency to wait only two hours, when, come what might, he would let his excellency have the courier horses.
It is good for me, bad for another traveler, and for himself it's unavoidable, because he needs money for food; the man said an officer had once given him a thrashing for letting a private traveler have the courier horses.
"I have hundreds of rubles I don't know what to do with, and she stands in her tattered cloak looking timidly at me," he thought.
God could not have put into her heart an impulse that was against His will.
And to attain this end, we have the light called conscience that God has implanted in our souls.
And what have you done with all these good gifts?
How have you spent it?
You have become the possessor of wealth.
How have you used it?
What have you done for your neighbor?
Have you ever thought of your tens of thousands of slaves?
Have you helped them physically and morally?
You have profited by their toil to lead a profligate life.
That is what you have done.
Have you chosen a post in which you might be of service to your neighbor?
You have spent your life in idleness.
"The exchange horses have just come," answered the servant.
"Yes, I never thought of it, but I have led a contemptible and profligate life, though I did not like it and did not want to," thought Pierre.
I agree with all you have said.
With my whole soul I wish to be what you would have me be, but I have never had help from anyone....
"I have come to you with a message and an offer, Count," he said without sitting down.
"One more question, Count," he said, "which I beg you to answer in all sincerity--not as a future Mason but as an honest man: have you renounced your former convictions--do you believe in God?"
"Whatever happens to you," he said, "you must bear it all manfully if you have firmly resolved to join our Brotherhood."
"For what have you come hither?" asked the newcomer, turning in Pierre's direction at a slight rustle made by the latter.
Why have you, who do not believe in the truth of the light and who have not seen the light, come here?
"Very well," said Smolyaninov, and went on at once: "Have you any idea of the means by which our holy Order will help you to reach your aim?" said he quietly and quickly.
Have you sought for means of attaining your aim in religion?
Hence we have a secondary aim, that of preparing our members as much as possible to reform their hearts, to purify and enlighten their minds, by means handed on to us by tradition from those who have striven to attain this mystery, and thereby to render them capable of receiving it.
"I must also inform you," said the Rhetor, "that our Order delivers its teaching not in words only but also by other means, which may perhaps have a stronger effect on the sincere seeker after wisdom and virtue than mere words.
This chamber with what you see therein should already have suggested to your heart, if it is sincere, more than words could do.
"But I have nothing here," replied Pierre, supposing that he was asked to give up all he possessed.
What you have with you: watch, money, rings....
I have had so many, replied Pierre.
Pierre would have liked to subscribe all he had, but fearing that it might look like pride subscribed the same amount as the others.
My dear fellow, what have you been up to in Moscow?
Why have you quarreled with Helene, mon cher?
Let us write her a letter at once, and she'll come here and all will be explained, or else, my dear boy, let me tell you it's quite likely you'll have to suffer for it.
Tu l'as voulu, George Dandin,' that's all we have to say about it!
Vienna considers the bases of the proposed treaty so unattainable that not even a continuity of most brilliant successes would secure them, and she doubts the means we have of gaining them.
The Emperor of Austria can never have thought of such a thing, it is only the cabinet that says it.
But what was still stranger, though of this Prince Andrew said nothing to his sister, was that in the expression the sculptor had happened to give the angel's face, Prince Andrew read the same mild reproach he had read on the face of his dead wife: "Ah, why have you done this to me?"
The old prince and his son seemed to have changed roles since the campaign of 1805.
Have just this moment received by special messenger very joyful news--if it's not false.
Bennigsen seems to have obtained a complete victory over Buonaparte at Eylau.
I can't make out what the commander at Korchevo--a certain Khandrikov--is up to; till now the additional men and provisions have not arrived.
Gallop off to him at once and say I'll have his head off if everything is not here in a week.
Have received another letter about the Preussisch-Eylau battle from Petenka--he took part in it--and it's all true.
Yes, we have gained a victory over Bonaparte, just when I'm not serving.
I have certainly acquired a taste for war, and it is just as well for me; what I have seen during these last three months is incredible.
The Prussians are our faithful allies who have only betrayed us three times in three years.
May I have succeeded!'
I shall await your most gracious permission here in hospital, that I may not have to play the part of a secretary rather than commander in the army.
We civilians, as you know, have a very bad way of deciding whether a battle was won or lost.
Those who retreat after a battle have lost it is what we say; and according to that it is we who lost the battle of Pultusk.
He was seized with alarm lest something should have happened to the child while he was reading the letter.
He quickly entered the small reception room with its still-unplastered wooden walls redolent of pine, and would have gone farther, but Anton ran ahead on tiptoe and knocked at a door.
It was as if Prince Andrew would have liked to sympathize with what Pierre was saying, but could not.
I can't tell you how much I have lived through since then.
"Yes, we have altered much, very much, since then," said Prince Andrew.
Let us have dinner, and then we'll set off.
To live only so as not to do evil and not to have to repent is not enough.
And I have become calmer since I began to live only for myself.
I should be thankful to do nothing, but here on the one hand the local nobility have done me the honor to choose me to be their marshal; it was all I could do to get out of it.
They could not understand that I have not the necessary qualifications for it--the kind of good-natured, fussy shallowness necessary for the position.
Then there's this house, which must be built in order to have a nook of one's own in which to be quiet.
I have promised myself not to serve again in the active Russian army.
I feel that I cannot vanish, since nothing vanishes in this world, but that I shall always exist and always have existed.
And I have looked in....
We must live, we must love, and we must believe that we live not only today on this scrap of earth, but have lived and shall live forever, there, in the Whole, said Pierre, and he pointed to the sky.
They have mistaken us for my father.
Where have you been?
And you who have a son! she began, her pallor suddenly turning to a vivid red.
Master, what have you said?
She evidently felt frightened and ashamed to have accepted charity in a house where such things could be said, and was at the same time sorry to have now to forgo the charity of this house.
I understand them so well and have the greatest respect for them.
"I have known you a long time, you see, and am as fond of you as of a brother," she said.
We'll have another dispute.
"I have given the order again and again, your honor, but they don't obey," answered the quartermaster.
Our men have had nothing to eat for two days.
"And mine have had nothing for two weeks," said Denisov.
'Please to wait.' 'I've widden twenty miles and have duties to attend to and no time to wait.
I'd have killed him if they hadn't taken him away!
Perhaps at another time Denisov would not have left the regiment for so slight a wound, but now he took advantage of it to excuse himself from appearing at the staff and went into hospital.
Some five of us doctors have died in this place....
Prussian doctors have been invited here, but our allies don't like it at all.
Have you got it, Makeev?
I've served the Tsar and my countwy honowably and have not stolen!
I should not have come, but I have business, he said coldly.
But if you are tired, come and lie down in my room and have a rest.
I have heard of such cases and know that His Majesty is very severe in such affairs.
He could not himself go to the general in attendance as he was in mufti and had come to Tilsit without permission to do so, and Boris, even had he wished to, could not have done so on the following day.
Whom have you come from?
Have you seen Lazarev?
"Have you heard the password?" asked one Guards' officer of another.
What right have we to argue?
If we're punished, it means that we have deserved it, it's not for us to judge.
Look at those cramped dead firs, ever the same, and at me too, sticking out my broken and barked fingers just where they have grown, whether from my back or my sides: as they have grown so I stand, and I do not believe in your hopes and your lies.
He could not now understand how he could ever even have doubted the necessity of taking an active share in life, just as a month before he had not understood how the idea of leaving the quiet country could ever enter his head.
I have endorsed a resolution on your memorandum and sent it to the committee.
I have the honor...
"Oh, is it you, Prince, who have freed your serfs?" said an old man of Catherine's day, turning contemptuously toward Bolkonski.
Well, I have Pryanichnikov serving under me, a splendid man, a priceless man, but he's sixty.
"I think, however, that these condemnations have some ground," returned Prince Andrew, trying to resist Speranski's influence, of which he began to be conscious.
"I do not dispute that, but it cannot be denied that court privileges have attained the same end," returned Prince Andrew.
"If you will do me the honor of calling on me on Wednesday," he added, "I will, after talking with Magnitski, let you know what may interest you, and shall also have the pleasure of a more detailed chat with you."
Had Speranski sprung from the same class as himself and possessed the same breeding and traditions, Bolkonski would soon have discovered his weak, human, unheroic sides; but as it was, Speranski's strange and logical turn of mind inspired him with respect all the more because he did not quite understand him.
In Prince Andrew's eyes Speranski was the man he would himself have wished to be--one who explained all the facts of life reasonably, considered important only what was rational, and was capable of applying the standard of reason to everything.
We want to give the Senate new juridical powers, but we have no laws.
As soon as we have a certain number of worthy men in every state, each of them again training two others and all being closely united, everything will be possible for our order, which has already in secret accomplished much for the welfare of mankind.
Had his wife come to him, he would not have turned her away.
I have just returned from my benefactor, and hasten to write down what I have experienced.
Talking of my family affairs he said to me, the chief duty of a true Mason, as I have told you, lies in perfecting himself.
I knew that if I once let myself see her I should not have strength to go on refusing what she wanted.
But if I forgive her for the sake of doing right, then let union with her have only a spiritual aim.
I told my wife that I begged her to forget the past, to forgive me whatever wrong I may have done her, and that I had nothing to forgive.
Young men read books before attending Helene's evenings, to have something to say in her salon, and secretaries of the embassy, and even ambassadors, confided diplomatic secrets to her, so that in a way Helene was a power.
And I said, "I should have known you had I met you by chance," and I thought to myself, "Am I telling the truth?"
"You see," said Berg to his comrade, whom he called "friend" only because he knew that everyone has friends, "you see, I have considered it all, and should not marry if I had not thought it all out or if it were in any way unsuitable.
But on the contrary, my papa and mamma are now provided for--I have arranged that rent for them in the Baltic Provinces--and I can live in Petersburg on my pay, and with her fortune and my good management we can get along nicely.
I have my position in the service, she has connections and some means.
But Berg, smiling pleasantly, explained that if he did not know for certain how much Vera would have and did not receive at least part of the dowry in advance, he would have to break matters off.
How handsome you have grown!
It seemed to him that he ought to have an explanation with Natasha and tell her that the old times must be forgotten, that in spite of everything... she could not be his wife, that he had no means, and they would never let her marry him.
Mamma, can we have a talk?
What is it tonight?--But I have to tell you...
I know," she said seriously; "that's what I have come about.
You have quite turned his head, I can see that....
You have quite turned his head, and why?
Speak! said she, turning to her mother, who was tenderly gazing at her daughter and in that contemplation seemed to have forgotten all she had wished to say.
He may already have found a suitable and wealthy match, and now he's half crazy.
But this is what I'll do, Natasha, I'll have a talk with Boris.
No, he is a Freemason, I have found out.
I have only my cap to pin on.
He would have embraced her but, blushing, she stepped aside fearing to be rumpled.
Looking at her she may have recalled the golden, irrecoverable days of her own girlhood and her own first ball.
Natasha at once recognized the shorter and younger man in the white uniform: it was Bolkonski, who seemed to her to have grown much younger, happier, and better-looking.
I have a protegee, the young Rostova, here.
"I have the pleasure of being already acquainted, if the countess remembers me," said Prince Andrew with a low and courteous bow quite belying Peronskaya's remarks about his rudeness, and approaching Natasha he held out his arm to grasp her waist before he had completed his invitation.
Like all men who have grown up in society, Prince Andrew liked meeting someone there not of the conventional society stamp.
"I have never enjoyed myself so much before!" she said, and Prince Andrew noticed how her thin arms rose quickly as if to embrace her father and instantly dropped again.
Then he vividly pictured to himself Bogucharovo, his occupations in the country, his journey to Ryazan; he remembered the peasants and Dron the village elder, and mentally applying to them the Personal Rights he had divided into paragraphs, he felt astonished that he could have spent so much time on such useless work.
She asked this and then became confused, feeling that she ought not to have asked it.
We shall have supper, Count.
And how have I obtained all this?
"The only thing is, we mustn't have children too soon," he continued, following an unconscious sequence of ideas.
"It can't be helped: men must sometimes have masculine conversation," said he.
I must have a talk with you, said Prince Andrew.
And could we ever have thought!...
"Well, dear heart," said he, "I wanted to tell you about it yesterday and I have come to do so today.
"I should not have believed anyone who told me that I was capable of such love," said Prince Andrew.
And I am afraid of him; I have now become quite calm, quite calm.
I only got back last night," he said glancing at Natasha; "I want to have a talk with you, Countess," he added after a moment's pause.
"I have come, Countess, to ask for your daughter's hand," said Prince Andrew.
I will speak to her when I have your consent....
My father, to whom I have told my plans, has made it an express condition of his consent that the wedding is not to take place for a year.
I have loved you from the very first moment I saw you.
"You know that from the very day you first came to Otradnoe I have loved you," she cried, quite convinced that she spoke the truth.
If after six months she felt that she did not love him she would have full right to reject him.
"You have known Bezukhov a long time?" he asked.
Do you know I have entrusted him with our secret?
I have known him from childhood.
Five years have passed since then, and already I, with my petty understanding, begin to see clearly why she had to die, and in what way that death was but an expression of the infinite goodness of the Creator, whose every action, though generally incomprehensible to us, is but a manifestation of His infinite love for His creatures.
Perhaps, I often think, she was too angelically innocent to have the strength to perform all a mother's duties.
Then, at the moment of our loss, these thoughts could not occur to me; I should then have dismissed them with horror, but now they are very clear and certain.
My father then insisted on a delay of a year and now already six months, half of that period, have passed, and my resolution is firmer than ever.
If the doctors did not keep me here at the spas I should be back in Russia, but as it is I have to postpone my return for three months.
Fallen man has retained a love of idleness, but the curse weighs on the race not only because we have to seek our bread in the sweat of our brows, but because our moral nature is such that we cannot be both idle and at ease.
Rostov had become a bluff, good-natured fellow, whom his Moscow acquaintances would have considered rather bad form, but who was liked and respected by his comrades, subordinates, and superiors, and was well contented with his life.
He felt that sooner or later he would have to re-enter that whirlpool of life, with its embarrassments and affairs to be straightened out, its accounts with stewards, quarrels, and intrigues, its ties, society, and with Sonya's love and his promise to her.
She wrote that if he did not come and take matters in hand, their whole property would be sold by auction and they would all have to go begging.
The countess, who heard at once from the maids what had happened at the lodge, was calmed by the thought that now their affairs would certainly improve, but on the other hand felt anxious as to the effect this excitement might have on her son.
And what I have done, I have done; but, if you like, I won't speak to him again.
Forgive me if I have caused you unpleasantness.
It seemed to Daniel irksome and improper to be in a room at all, but to have anything to do with a young lady seemed to him impossible.
"Have you seen the young countess?" he asked.
Yes, one would have to search far to find another as smart.
But the wolf jumped up more quickly than anyone could have expected and, gnashing her teeth, flew at the yellowish borzoi, which, with a piercing yelp, fell with its head on the ground, bleeding from a gash in its side.
Having ridden up to Nicholas, Ilagin raised his beaver cap and said he much regretted what had occurred and would have the man punished who had allowed himself to seize a fox hunted by someone else's borzois.
At the very moment when she would have seized her prey, the hare moved and darted along the balk between the winter rye and the stubble.
A score of women serfs, old and young, as well as children, popped out from the back entrance to have a look at the hunters who were arriving.
Why have you shut it?
I have got him a good balalayka.
Where, how, and when had this young countess, educated by an emigree French governess, imbibed from the Russian air she breathed that spirit and obtained that manner which the pas de chale * would, one would have supposed, long ago have effaced?
I have no other friend like her and never shall have.
She felt this to be their last hope and that if Nicholas refused the match she had found for him, she would have to abandon the hope of ever getting matters right.
"No, you have not understood me," said his mother, not knowing how to justify herself.
You have not understood me, Nikolenka.
"No, you have not understood me, don't let us talk about it," she replied, wiping away her tears.
Natasha was still as much in love with her betrothed, found the same comfort in that love, and was still as ready to throw herself into all the pleasures of life as before; but at the end of the fourth month of their separation she began to have fits of depression which she could not master.
"Nastasya Ivanovna, what sort of children shall I have?" she asked the buffoon, who was coming toward her in a woman's jacket.
What she drew from the guitar would have had no meaning for other listeners, but in her imagination a whole series of reminiscences arose from those sounds.
Perhaps he came yesterday and I have forgotten it.
I have felt like that when everything was all right and everyone was cheerful.
The Egyptians believed that our souls have lived in animals, and will go back into animals again.
The soul is immortal--well then, if I shall always live I must have lived before, lived for a whole eternity.
Besides, you wouldn't have room to turn round there.
And if this is really Melyukovka, it is still stranger that we drove heaven knows where and have come to Melyukovka, thought Nicholas.
Well, you have cheered us up!
"Natasha!" he whispered in French, "do you know I have made up my mind about Sonya?"
"Have you told her?" asked Natasha, suddenly beaming all over with joy.
You have done splendidly.
So you are glad and I have done right?
Nicholas felt the situation to be intolerable and went to have an explanation with his mother.
But he had no time to utter the decisive word which the expression of his face caused his mother to await with terror, and which would perhaps have forever remained a cruel memory to them both.
The thought that her best days, which she would have employed in loving him, were being vainly wasted, with no advantage to anyone, tormented her incessantly.
He could not have believed it!
We all profess the Christian law of forgiveness of injuries and love of our neighbors, the law in honor of which we have built in Moscow forty times forty churches--but yesterday a deserter was knouted to death and a minister of that same law of love and forgiveness, a priest, gave the soldier a cross to kiss before his execution.
I have tried, and have always found that they too in the depths of their souls understand it as I do, and only try not to see it.
He had the unfortunate capacity many men, especially Russians, have of seeing and believing in the possibility of goodness and truth, but of seeing the evil and falsehood of life too clearly to be able to take a serious part in it.
I have a solution ready, but have no time now--I'll think it all out later on!
Sometimes he remembered how he had heard that soldiers in war when entrenched under the enemy's fire, if they have nothing to do, try hard to find some occupation the more easily to bear the danger.
After dinner, when the footman handed coffee and from habit began with the princess, the prince suddenly grew furious, threw his stick at Philip, and instantly gave instructions to have him conscripted for the army.
With her, he said, he could not have a moment's peace and could not die quietly.
I have thought it over, and it will be carried out--we must part; so find some place for yourself....
"I have read our protests about the Oldenburg affair and was surprised how badly the Note was worded," remarked Count Rostopchin in the casual tone of a man dealing with a subject quite familiar to him.
"My dear fellow, with our five hundred thousand troops it should be easy to have a good style," returned Count Rostopchin.
"One would have thought quill drivers enough had sprung up," remarked the old prince.
"Have you known that young man long, Princess?" he asked.
Because I have noticed that when a young man comes on leave from Petersburg to Moscow it is usually with the object of marrying an heiress.
"You have observed that?" said Princess Mary.
Don't take any notice-- forget what I have said!
"Have you any news of the Rostovs?" she asked, to change the subject.
You have known them a long time, said Princess Mary.
Anna Mikhaylovna, who often visited the Karagins, while playing cards with the mother made careful inquiries as to Julie's dowry (she was to have two estates in Penza and the Nizhegorod forests).
"Ah, my dear, I can't tell you how fond I have grown of Julie latterly," she said to her son.
"And how I pity her mother," she went on; "today she showed me her accounts and letters from Penza (they have enormous estates there), and she, poor thing, has no one to help her, and they do cheat her so!"
Boris began, wishing to sting her; but at that instant the galling thought occurred to him that he might have to leave Moscow without having accomplished his aim, and have vainly wasted his efforts--which was a thing he never allowed to happen.
I'm heartily glad you have come and are staying with me.
You'll have to make his acquaintance.
I suppose you'll have everything new.
And what have you to do yourself? she asked the count sternly.
Next morning Marya Dmitrievna took the young ladies to the Iberian shrine of the Mother of God and to Madame Suppert-Roguet, who was so afraid of Marya Dmitrievna that she always let her have costumes at a loss merely to get rid of her.
You see I have known him a long time and am also fond of Mary, your future sister-in-law.
"What have I said and what have I done?" thought she, as soon as she was out of the room.
Dolokhov and Anatole Kuragin have turned all our ladies' heads.
I'm here on business and have brought my girls with me.
I have already heard much of you in Petersburg and wanted to get to know you, said she to Natasha with her stereotyped and lovely smile.
Have you heard he is getting married?
Only to the old countess at night in bed could Natasha have told all she was feeling.
I have done nothing, I didn't lead him on at all.
We have an excellent priest, he conducts the service decently and with dignity, and the deacon is the same.
She looked at Natasha's dresses and praised them, as well as a new dress of her own made of "metallic gauze," which she had received from Paris, and advised Natasha to have one like it.
So she knows I am engaged, and she and her husband Pierre--that good Pierre--have talked and laughed about this.
I don't care to have anything to do with Bezukhova and don't advise you to; however, if you've promised--go.
You are enchanting... from the moment I saw you I have never ceased...
I have nothing to say, her eyes replied.
"Else how could all this have happened?" thought she.
"Well, friends, I have now thought the whole matter over and this is my advice," she began.
Only so could I be completely happy; but now I have to choose, and I can't be happy without either of them.
But am I really to abandon forever the joy of Prince Andrew's love, in which I have lived so long?
Yes, she loved him, or else how could that have happened which had happened?
And how could she have a love letter from him in her hand?
Can she have left off loving Prince Andrew?
How is it you have loved a man for a whole year and suddenly...
Why, you have only seen him three times!
It seems to me that I have never loved anyone before.
I had heard that it happens like this, and you must have heard it too, but it's only now that I feel such love.
"I told you that I have no will," Natasha replied.
I have confided in you....
Natasha, have you considered what these secret reasons can be?
Why, you have read his letter and you have seen him.
We have had an explanation today.
"Natasha," said she, "you asked me not to speak to you, and I haven't spoken, but now you yourself have begun.
"Well," he said, "Khvostikov must have two thousand."
Why, they'll have you in the criminal court....
"Didn't I explain to you that I have come to this conclusion: if this marriage is invalid," he went on, crooking one finger, "then I have nothing to answer for; but if it is valid, no matter!
More than once they had beaten him, and more than once they had made him drunk on champagne and Madeira, which he loved; and he knew more than one thing about each of them which would long ago have sent an ordinary man to Siberia.
Let me have what you can to go to the fair.
What horses have you come with?
Have a drink! said Anatole, and filled a large glass of Madeira for him.
We have had a good time--now farewell, lads!
Shut the door; we have first to sit down.
I have heard what elopements are like, continued Dolokhov with a wink.
"I have no betrothed: I have refused him!" cried Natasha.
Why have you interfered at all?
Well, if he had carried you off... do you think they wouldn't have found him?
And she burst into sobs with the despairing vehemence with which people bewail disasters they feel they have themselves occasioned.
What can have happened?
For fifty-eight years have I lived in this world and never known anything so disgraceful!
Have you heard she has broken off her engagement without consulting anybody?
Let him tell you whether I have told the truth.
Yes, I have just seen him.
Have you any letters of hers?
I know I can't prevent your doing so, but if you have a spark of conscience...
"I don't know that and don't want to," he said, not looking at Pierre and with a slight tremor of his lower jaw, "but you have used such words to me--'mean' and so on--which as a man of honor I can't allow anyone to use."
Pierre now recognized in his friend a need with which he was only too familiar, to get excited and to have arguments about extraneous matters in order to stifle thoughts that were too oppressive and too intimate.
I have received a refusal from Countess Rostova and have heard reports of your brother-in-law having sought her hand, or something of that kind.
I'm only tormented by the wrong I have done him.
You have your whole life before you, said he to her.
Without each of these causes nothing could have happened.
In historic events the so-called great men are labels giving names to events, and like labels they have but the smallest connection with the event itself.
Yesterday I learned that, despite the loyalty with which I have kept my engagements with Your Majesty, your troops have crossed the Russian frontier, and I have this moment received from Petersburg a note, in which Count Lauriston informs me, as a reason for this aggression, that Your Majesty has considered yourself to be in a state of war with me from the time Prince Kuragin asked for his passports.
The reasons on which the Duc de Bassano based his refusal to deliver them to him would never have led me to suppose that that could serve as a pretext for aggression.
"You are perfectly at liberty to treat me with respect or not," protested Balashev, "but permit me to observe that I have the honor to be adjutant general to His Majesty...."
I have received the letter you brought from the Emperor Alexander and am very glad to see you.
Have I not for eighteen months been doing everything to obtain it?
I have waited eighteen months for explanations.
You say I have begun this war!
And you offer me negotiations when I have expended millions, when you are in alliance with England, and when your position is a bad one.
I hear you have made peace with Turkey?
Yes, I know you have made peace with the Turks without obtaining Moldavia and Wallachia; I would have given your sovereign those provinces as I gave him Finland.
All that, he would have owed to my friendship.
What a splendid reign the Emperor Alexander's might have been!
You have not two hundred thousand men, and I have three times that number.
I give you my word of honor," said Napoleon, forgetting that his word of honor could carry no weight--"I give you my word of honor that I have five hundred and thirty thousand men this side of the Vistula.
The Turks will be of no use to you; they are worth nothing and have shown it by making peace with you.
Balashev knew how to reply to each of Napoleon's remarks, and would have done so; he continually made the gesture of a man wishing to say something, but Napoleon always interrupted him.
I have allies-- the Poles.
That is what you have gained by alienating me!
I have convinced you.
To have one's ear pulled by the Emperor was considered the greatest honor and mark of favor at the French court.
Let him have mine, he has a long way to go!
We have no right to punish.
"If Mary is already persuading me to forgive, it means that I ought long ago to have punished him," he thought.
Already from his military experience and what he had seen in the Austrian campaign, he had come to the conclusion that in war the most deeply considered plans have no significance and that all depends on the way unexpected movements of the enemy--that cannot be foreseen--are met, and on how and by whom the whole matter is handled.
We have abandoned Vilna and Vitebsk and shall abandon Drissa.
"Be he what he may" (they always began like that), "he is an honest, practical man and we have nobody better.
Prince Andrew did not catch what he said and would have passed on, but Chernyshev introduced him to Pfuel, remarking that Prince Andrew was just back from Turkey where the war had terminated so fortunately.
Armfeldt says our army is cut in half, and Paulucci says we have got the French army between two fires; Michaud says that the worthlessness of the Drissa camp lies in having the river behind it, and Pfuel says that is what constitutes its strength; Toll proposes one plan, Armfeldt another, and they are all good and all bad, and the advantages of any suggestions can be seen only at the moment of trial.
The best generals I have known were, on the contrary, stupid or absent-minded men.
I have come from the staff, Count.
Have you heard of Raevski's exploit?
Ilyin tried to imitate Rostov in everything and adored him as a girl might have done.
So why should he have made such a sacrifice?
About two hundred yards away there's a tavern where ours have already gathered.
At Rostov's suggestion it was agreed that whoever became "King" should have the right to kiss Mary Hendrikhovna's hand, and that the "Booby" should go to refill and reheat the samovar for the doctor when the latter awoke.
"No, gentlemen, you have had your sleep, but I have not slept for two nights," replied the doctor, and he sat down morosely beside his wife, waiting for the game to end.
Have I disgraced myself in any way?
Rostov saw the prisoners being led away and galloped after them to have a look at his Frenchman with the dimple on his chin.
And they have given me a St. George's Cross....
A child knocks itself and runs at once to the arms of its mother or nurse to have the aching spot rubbed or kissed, and it feels better when this is done.
The child cannot believe that the strongest and wisest of its people have no remedy for its pain, and the hope of relief and the expression of its mother's sympathy while she rubs the bump comforts it.
What would she not have given to bring back even a single day of that time!
After those involuntary words--that if he were free he would have asked on his knees for her hand and her love--uttered at a moment when she was so strongly agitated, Pierre never spoke to Natasha of his feelings; and it seemed plain to her that those words, which had then so comforted her, were spoken as all sorts of meaningless words are spoken to comfort a crying child.
The French alphabet, written out with the same numerical values as the Hebrew, in which the first nine letters denote units and the others tens, will have the following significance:
I have a sackful of letters to parents.
Will he not always have a bitter feeling toward me?
"Well, mon cher, have you got the manifesto?" asked the old count.
I'll drive home, I must have left them there.
And have you heard?
If they call up the militia, you too will have to mount a horse, remarked the old count, addressing Pierre.
"Well, Peter Kirilych, let's go and have a smoke," he said.
No, simply I have business....
Next day the Emperor arrived in Moscow, and several of the Rostovs' domestic serfs begged permission to go to have a look at him.
All these conversations, especially the joking with the girls, were such as might have had a particular charm for Petya at his age, but they did not interest him now.
Petya too would have run there, but the clerk who had taken the young gentleman under his protection stopped him.
He did not know why, but he had to have a biscuit from the Tsar's hand and he felt that he must not give way.
What if the Smolensk people have offahd to waise militia for the Empewah?
"Well then," continued Prince Andrew to Alpatych, "report to them as I have told you"; and not replying a word to Berg who was now mute beside him, he touched his horse and rode down the side street.
Consider that on our retreat we have lost by fatigue and left in the hospital more than fifteen thousand men, and had we attacked this would not have happened.
Well, have you heard the great news?
His face seemed to have shriveled or melted; his features had grown smaller.
"I have a letter from him," she replied.
Alpatych, arriving from the devastated Bald Hills estate, sent for his Dron on the day of the prince's funeral and told him to have twelve horses got ready for the princess' carriages and eighteen carts for the things to be removed from Bogucharovo.
What is it you have got into your heads, eh?...
They're quite beside themselves; I have already told them...
What they would have said and what they would have done she felt bound to say and do.
Dronushka, Alpatych has gone off somewhere and I have no one to turn to.
They have no bread? she asked.
"But we have grain belonging to my brother?" she said.
"Give it to the peasants, let them have all they need; I give you leave in my brother's name," said she.
I have served twenty-three years and have done no wrong.
An hour later Dunyasha came to tell the princess that Dron had come, and all the peasants had assembled at the barn by the princess' order and wished to have word with their mistress.
I only told Dron to let them have the grain.
Only, for God's sake, Princess dear, have them sent away and don't go out to them.
You must have given my message wrong.
"But you can't have understood me," said Princess Mary with a sad smile.
Having repeated her order to Dron to have horses ready for her departure next morning, she went to her room and remained alone with her own thoughts.
Never will that moment return for him or for me when he might have said all he longed to say, and not Tikhon but I might have heard and understood him.
Perhaps he would then have said to me what he said the day he died.
What could he have done to me?
What could I have lost?
"But why have you collected here?" he added.
"The old men have met to talk over the business of the commune," replied the peasant, moving away.
"I have the honor to report to you the actual truth," said Alpatych.
But we all have to die.
To be sure, we all have to die.
It's as the old men have decided--there's too many of you giving orders.
Any police officer would have done as much!
If we had had only peasants to fight, we should not have let the enemy come so far, said he with a sense of shame and wishing to change the subject.
I am only happy to have had the opportunity of making your acquaintance.
Come with me, we'll have a talk, said he.
All right, all right, friend, stay here at the staff and tomorrow we'll have a talk.
"Would not your Serene Highness like to come inside?" said the general on duty in a discontented voice, "the plans must be examined and several papers have to be signed."
Let's have a talk, said Kutuzov.
What... what they have brought us to!
"But shan't we have to accept battle?" remarked Prince Andrew.
And above all," thought Prince Andrew, "one believes in him because he's Russian, despite the novel by Genlis and the French proverbs, and because his voice shook when he said: 'What they have brought us to!' and had a sob in it when he said he would 'make them eat horseflesh!'"
For Gallicisms I won't be responsible," she remarked, turning to the author: "I have neither the money nor the time, like Prince Galitsyn, to engage a master to teach me Russian!"
Let me have some more strips of linen.
But now they have had him transferred to my regiment and are expecting him every day.
"Qui s'excuse s'accuse," * said Julie, smiling and waving the lint triumphantly, and to have the last word she promptly changed the subject.
I have informed him of the matter.
The ancients have left us model heroic poems in which the heroes furnish the whole interest of the story, and we are still unable to accustom ourselves to the fact that for our epoch histories of that kind are meaningless.
A Cossack patrol would have sufficed to observe the enemy.
Napoleon, riding to Valuevo on the twenty-fourth, did not see (as the history books say he did) the position of the Russians from Utitsa to Borodino (he could not have seen that position because it did not exist), nor did he see an advanced post of the Russian army, but while pursuing the Russian rearguard he came upon the left flank of the Russian position--at the Shevardino Redoubt--and unexpectedly for the Russians moved his army across the Kolocha.
Had Napoleon not ridden out on the evening of the twenty-fourth to the Kolocha, and had he not then ordered an immediate attack on the redoubt but had begun the attack next morning, no one would have doubted that the Shevardino Redoubt was the left flank of our position, and the battle would have taken place where we expected it.
In that case we should probably have defended the Shevardino Redoubt--our left flank-- still more obstinately.
We should have attacked Napoleon in the center or on the right, and the engagement would have taken place on the twenty-fifth, in the position we intended and had fortified.
The peasants--even they have to go, said the soldier behind the cart, addressing Pierre with a sad smile.
We have ten thousand carts, but we need other things as well--we must manage as best we can!
Our right flank is over there"--he pointed sharply to the right, far away in the broken ground--"That's where the Moskva River is, and we have thrown up three redoubts there, very strong ones.
Yesterday our left flank was there at Shevardino, you see, where the oak is, but now we have withdrawn our left wing--now it is over there, do you see that village and the smoke?
Boris shrugged his shoulders, his Serene Highness would not have it, or someone persuaded him.
In any case many great rewards would have to be given for tomorrow's action, and new men would come to the front.
The militia have put on clean white shirts to be ready to die.
I have the honor to be one of your wife's adorers.
"I have come... simply... you know... come... it interests me," said Pierre, who had so often that day senselessly repeated that word "interesting."
Have they reached Moscow at last? he asked seriously.
They have gone to your estate near Moscow.
The officers were about to take leave, but Prince Andrew, apparently reluctant to be left alone with his friend, asked them to stay and have tea.
Not being a military man I can't say I have understood it fully, but I understand the general position.
If we had not said that till the evening, heaven knows what might not have happened.
The fact is that those men with whom you have ridden round the position not only do not help matters, but hinder.
For me tomorrow means this: a Russian army of a hundred thousand and a French army of a hundred thousand have met to fight, and the thing is that these two hundred thousand men will fight and the side that fights more fiercely and spares itself least will win.
That's what I was saying to you-- those German gentlemen won't win the battle tomorrow but will only make all the mess they can, because they have nothing in their German heads but theories not worth an empty eggshell and haven't in their hearts the one thing needed tomorrow--that which Timokhin has.
They have yielded up all Europe to him, and have now come to teach us.
The French have destroyed my home and are on their way to destroy Moscow, they have outraged and are outraging me every moment.
As it is we have played at war--that's what's vile!
He who has come to this as I have through the same sufferings...
I see that I have begun to understand too much.
Before a battle one must have one's sleep out, repeated Prince Andrew.
You have hurried here.
"I am very sorry to have made you travel so far," said he.
You will have a pleasant journey.
This is the battle you have so longed for.
The commander of the artillery of the 3rd Corps, General Fouche, will place the howitzers of the 3rd and 8th Corps, sixteen in all, on the flanks of the battery that is to bombard the entrenchment on the left, which will have forty guns in all directed against it.
Had Napoleon then forbidden them to fight the Russians, they would have killed him and have proceeded to fight the Russians because it was inevitable.
I have always said so and I am beginning to experience it.
"I have neither taste nor smell," he remarked, sniffing at his glass.
"Tomorrow we shall have to deal with Kutuzov!" said Napoleon.
All the gentlemen have gone out, and his Serene Highness himself rode past long ago.
"How have you got here?" he said, and galloped on.
"Why have you come here, Count?" he asked with a smile.
They seemed not to have expected him to talk like anybody else, and the discovery that he did so delighted them.
"Am I taken prisoner or have I taken him prisoner?" each was thinking.
How can they need reinforcements when they already have half the army directed against a weak, unentrenched Russian wing?
Go and have another look and then come back to me.
"At eight hundred leagues from France, I will not have my Guard destroyed!" he said, and turning his horse rode back to Shevardino.
"Yes, yes: go, dear boy, and have a look," he would say to one or another of those about him; or, "No, don't, we'd better wait!"
Soon after the duke's departure--before he could possibly have reached Semenovsk--his adjutant came back from him and told Kutuzov that the duke asked for more troops.
I have not considered it right to conceal from your Serene Highness what I have seen.
While Kutuzov was talking to Raevski and dictating the order of the day, Wolzogen returned from Barclay and said that General Barclay wished to have written confirmation of the order the field marshal had given.
"It seems that even in the next world only the gentry are to have a chance!" remarked one.
Let them have it!
In that reunion of great sovereigns we should have discussed our interests like one family, and have rendered account to the peoples as clerk to master.
I should have demanded the freedom of all navigable rivers for everybody, that the seas should be common to all, and that the great standing armies should be reduced henceforth to mere guards for the sovereigns.
On returning to France, to the bosom of the great, strong, magnificent, peaceful, and glorious fatherland, I should have proclaimed her frontiers immutable; all future wars purely defensive, all aggrandizement antinational.
To speak of what would have happened had Napoleon sent his Guards is like talking of what would happen if autumn became spring.
Only when we have admitted the conception of the infinitely small, and the resulting geometrical progression with a common ratio of one tenth, and have found the sum of this progression to infinity, do we reach a solution of the problem.
Whenever I look at my watch and its hands point to ten, I hear the bells of the neighboring church; but because the bells begin to ring when the hands of the clock reach ten, I have no right to assume that the movement of the bells is caused by the position of the hands of the watch.
For people accustomed to think that plans of campaign and battles are made by generals--as any one of us sitting over a map in his study may imagine how he would have arranged things in this or that battle--the questions present themselves: Why did Kutuzov during the retreat not do this or that?
Learned military authorities quite seriously tell us that Kutuzov should have moved his army to the Kaluga road long before reaching Fili, and that somebody actually submitted such a proposal to him.
A fifth group, displaying the profundity of their strategic perceptions, discussed the direction the troops would now have to take.
The question for him now was: Have I really allowed Napoleon to reach Moscow, and when did I do so?
The question I have asked these gentlemen to meet to discuss is a military one.
"Well, gentlemen, I see that it is I who will have to pay for the broken crockery," said he, and rising slowly he moved to the table.
Gentlemen, I have heard your views.
Every Russian might have predicted it, not by reasoning but by the feeling implanted in each of us and in our fathers.
What would have seemed difficult or even impossible to another woman did not cause the least embarrassment to Countess Bezukhova, who evidently deserved her reputation of being a very clever woman.
Had she attempted concealment, or tried to extricate herself from her awkward position by cunning, she would have spoiled her case by acknowledging herself guilty.
What right have you, monseigneur, to demand an account of my attachments and friendships?
That marriage lacked the dual significance it should have had.
Perhaps you think you have invented a novelty?
"Helene, I have a word to say to you," and he would lead her aside, drawing her hand downward.
I have heard of certain projects concerning... you know.
You have suffered so much....
That is all I have to say, and concealing his unvarying emotion he would press his cheek against his daughter's and move away.
As a true friend, I have thought and thought again about your affair.
In my position I have obligations.
And so I pray God to have you, my friend, in His holy and powerful keeping--Your friend Helene.
I came to the battle and have lost them.
Where have you to go to?
There was a time when I could have done it.
I could have run away from my father, as I wanted to.
One second more and I should have understood it all!
Vasilchikov and Platov had already seen the count and explained to him that it was impossible to defend Moscow and that it would have to be surrendered.
Tomorrow after dinner I shall take the Iberian icon of the Mother of God to the wounded in the Catherine Hospital where we will have some water blessed.
"But military men have told me that it is impossible to fight in the town," said Pierre, "and that the position..."
"I have heard nothing," Pierre replied unconcernedly.
But what have you heard?
Perhaps you have heard of that affair with the proclamation.
He could only have had it from the Postmaster.
'How could you have written it yourself?' said he, and he took up the Hamburg Gazette that was lying on the table.
'No,' said he, 'I have not read any papers, I made it up myself.' 'If that's so, you're a traitor and I'll have you tried, and you'll be hanged!
Say from whom you had it.' 'I have seen no papers, I made it up myself.'
We have heard of your prowess.
It has now come to my knowledge that you lent him your carriage for his removal from town, and that you have even accepted papers from him for safe custody.
Be off as soon as you can, that's all I have to tell you.
"Then you have nobody in Moscow?" she was saying.
They can have all our half of the house.
Mavra Kuzminichna has sent me: they have brought some wounded here--officers.
They have nowhere to go.
Whom have they brought?
"You can't, Miss, we have tried to," said the butler's assistant.
We have a house of our own in Moscow, but it's a long way from here, and there's nobody living in it.
I have nothing here with me....
You said yourself that we have a hundred thousand rubles' worth of things in the house.
If you have no pity on me, have some for the children.
The army is burning with a spirit of heroism and the leaders, so to say, have now assembled in council.
I tell you, Papa" (he smote himself on the breast as a general he had heard speaking had done, but Berg did it a trifle late for he should have struck his breast at the words "Russian army"), "I tell you frankly that we, the commanders, far from having to urge the men on or anything of that kind, could hardly restrain those... those... yes, those exploits of antique valor," he went on rapidly.
You have still time to get away....
I have just been told that nothing is ready yet.
"And I have a great favor to ask of you, Papa," said he.
Please let me have one, I will pay the man well, and...
You can't possibly have ordered it!
They can have my trap, or else what is to become of them?
"Let them have my wardrobe cart," said the countess.
We have recognized you!
"I will come in all the same, I have to look through the books," said Pierre.
As it was sealed up so it has remained, but Sophia Danilovna gave orders that if anyone should come from you they were to have the books.
Will you have something to eat?
Gerasim, being a servant who in his time had seen many strange things, accepted Pierre's taking up his residence in the house without surprise, and seemed pleased to have someone to wait on.
"He will have to be told, all the same," said some gentlemen of the suite.
They have almost all died unawares, sitting in the sanctuary they had guarded and which is now no more.
Half the men have dispersed.
In my three shops here I have a hundred thousand rubles' worth of goods.
"An officer, I have to see him," came the reply in a pleasant, well-bred Russian voice.
They have gone away, sir.
I should have come yesterday....
What have you killed a man for, you thief?
There now, the gentry and merchants have gone away and left us to perish.
And this is what they have let it come to!
They have horses, let them be off to Vladimir, and not leave them to the French.
Do you expect me to give you two battalions--which we have not got--for a convoy?
Your excellency, they say they have got ready, according to your orders, to go against the French, and they shouted something about treachery.
This is what they have done with Russia!
This is what they have done with me! thought he, full of an irrepressible fury that welled up within him against the someone to whom what was happening might be attributed.
"Here is that mob, the dregs of the people," he thought as he gazed at the crowd: "this rabble they have roused by their folly!
Since the world began and men have killed one another no one has ever committed such a crime against his fellow man without comforting himself with this same idea.
I could not let him go unpunished and so I have killed two birds with one stone: to appease the mob I gave them a victim and at the same time punished a miscreant.
Thrice have they slain me, thrice have I risen from the dead.
They have torn my body.
I need not have said them, he thought.
And then nothing would have happened.
Allow me to have the pistol.
"But I have had a lucky escape this time," he added, pointing to the damaged plaster of the wall.
You have saved my life.
You have saved my life!
Will you now be so good as to tell me with whom I have the honor of conversing so pleasantly, instead of being in the ambulance with that maniac's bullet in my body?
You have borne arms against us.
You see, I have bullets enough in my body already.
Apropos, tell me please, is it true that the women have all left Moscow?
Well, if you hadn't told me you were Russian, I should have wagered that you were Parisian!
I have been in Paris.
You have been to Paris and have remained Russian.
What a chance those girls have missed!
Well, let's have another bottle of this Moscow Bordeaux, shall we?
Have I upset you?
No, really, have you anything against me? he asked Pierre.
Who would have said that I should be a soldier and a captain of dragoons in the service of Bonaparte, as we used to call him?
I have not got one.
"You fellows have no conscience," said he to the valet who was pouring water over his hands.
"Sister must have taken her, or else where can she be?" he added.
You have no heart, you don't feel for your own child!
Another man would have rescued her from the fire.
This is what we have brought away....
Have you lost anyone, my dear fellow?
"She is bringing me my daughter whom I have just saved from the flames," said he.
It followed that there must have been a victory.
Have you brought me sad news, Colonel?
"Have they surrendered my ancient capital without a battle?" asked the Emperor quickly, his face suddenly flushing.
I have learned to know him, and he will not deceive me any more....
When he had parted from Malvintseva Nicholas wished to return to the dancing, but the governor's little wife placed her plump hand on his sleeve and, saying that she wanted to have a talk with him, led him to her sitting room, from which those who were there immediately withdrew so as not to be in her way.
Nicholas suddenly felt a desire and need to tell his most intimate thoughts (which he would not have told to his mother, his sister, or his friend) to this woman who was almost a stranger.
Besides, would the princess have me?
"You have met him, Aunt?" said she in a calm voice, unable herself to understand that she could be outwardly so calm and natural.
Herself a consummate coquette, she could not have maneuvered better on meeting a man she wished to attract.
"Have you seen the princess?" she asked, indicating with a movement of her head a lady standing on the opposite side, beyond the choir.
"And I have known so many cases of a splinter wound" (the Gazette said it was a shell) "either proving fatal at once or being very slight," continued Nicholas.
Yes, prayer can move mountains, but one must have faith and not pray as Natasha and I used to as children, that the snow might turn into sugar-- and then run out into the yard to see whether it had done so.
Glancing indolently and indifferently at all the prisoners, he ordered the officer in charge to have them decently dressed and tidied up before taking them to the marshal.
You cannot know me, General, I have never seen you...
No, monseigneur, you cannot have known me.
I am a militia officer and have not quitted Moscow.
What proof have I that you are not lying?
Not the men on the commission that had first examined him--not one of them wished to or, evidently, could have done it.
In another moment Davout would have realized that he was doing wrong, but just then the adjutant had come in and interrupted him.
The adjutant, also, had evidently had no evil intent though he might have refrained from coming in.
Well, and you, have you a family estate, sir?
"Well, and have you little ones?" he went on asking.
He loved his dog, his comrades, the French, and Pierre who was his neighbor, but Pierre felt that in spite of Karataev's affectionate tenderness for him (by which he unconsciously gave Pierre's spiritual life its due) he would not have grieved for a moment at parting from him.
"I have found out everything, your excellency: the Rostovs are staying at the merchant Bronnikov's house, in the Square not far from here, right above the Volga," said the courier.
I love you and have known you a long time.
We have sent to ask.
Natasha's face and eyes would have to tell her all more clearly and profoundly.
Had he screamed in agony, that scream would not have struck such horror into Princess Mary's heart as the tone of his voice.
"And have you brought little Nicholas?" he asked in the same slow, quiet manner and with an obvious effort to remember.
Had he expected to live he could not have said those words in that offensively cold tone.
If he had not known that he was dying, how could he have failed to pity her and how could he speak like that in her presence?
And so you have met Count Nicholas, Mary?
When during those first days he remembered that he would have to die, he said to himself: Well, what of it?
"But you have not slept," she said, repressing her joy.
The discovery of these laws is only possible when we have quite abandoned the attempt to find the cause in the will of some one man, just as the discovery of the laws of the motion of the planets was possible only when men abandoned the conception of the fixity of the earth.
That flank march might not only have failed to give any advantage to the Russian army, but might in other circumstances have led to its destruction.
What would have happened had Moscow not burned down?
What would have happened had the French attacked the Russians while they were marching beyond the Pakhra?
What would have happened if on approaching Tarutino, Napoleon had attacked the Russians with but a tenth of the energy he had shown when he attacked them at Smolensk?
What would have happened had the French moved on Petersburg?...
In any of these eventualities the flank march that brought salvation might have proved disastrous.
If instead of imagining to ourselves commanders of genius leading the Russian army, we picture that army without any leaders, it could not have done anything but make a return movement toward Moscow, describing an arc in the direction where most provisions were to be found and where the country was richest.
I beg your Highness to credit what he says to you, especially when he expresses the sentiment of esteem and special regard I have long entertained for your person.
Remember that you have still to answer to our offended country for the loss of Moscow.
You have experienced my readiness to reward you.
That readiness will not weaken in me, but I and Russia have a right to expect from you all the zeal, firmness, and success which your intellect, military talent, and the courage of the troops you command justify us in expecting.
One man said he had seen Ermolov ride past with some other generals, others said he must have returned home.
I'll have you shot!
When I was a chit of an officer no one would have dared to mock me so... and now!
Some columns, supposing they had reached their destination, halted, piled arms, and settled down on the cold ground, but the majority marched all night and arrived at places where they evidently should not have been.
He said that Murat was spending the night less than a mile from where they were, and that if they would let him have a convoy of a hundred men he would capture him alive.
Our columns ought to have begun to appear on an open declivity to his right.
As often happens when someone we have trusted is no longer before our eyes, it suddenly seemed quite clear and obvious to him that the sergeant was an impostor, that he had lied, and that the whole Russian attack would be ruined by the absence of those two regiments, which he would lead away heaven only knew where.
Will you have them fetched back?
Had the Cossacks pursued the French, without heeding what was behind and around them, they would have captured Murat and everything there.
Thus he stumbled on Bagovut's corps in a wood when it was already broad daylight, though the corps should long before have joined Orlov-Denisov.
Meanwhile another column was to have attacked the French from the front, but Kutuzov accompanied that column.
"That's how everything is done with us, all topsy-turvy!" said the Russian officers and generals after the Tarutino battle, letting it be understood that some fool there is doing things all wrong but that we ourselves should not have done so, just as people speak today.
The battle of Tarutino obviously did not attain the aim Toll had in view--to lead the troops into action in the order prescribed by the dispositions; nor that which Count Orlov-Denisov may have had in view-- to take Murat prisoner; nor the result of immediately destroying the whole corps, which Bennigsen and others may have had in view; nor the aim of the officer who wished to go into action to distinguish himself; nor that of the Cossack who wanted more booty than he got, and so on.
Of all that Napoleon might have done: wintering in Moscow, advancing on Petersburg or on Nizhni-Novgorod, or retiring by a more northerly or more southerly route (say by the road Kutuzov afterwards took), nothing more stupid or disastrous can be imagined than what he actually did.
But we, thank God, have no need to recognize his genius in order to hide our shame.
We have paid for the right to look at the matter plainly and simply, and we will not abandon that right.
Terrible examples have taught you how he punishes disobedience and crime.
With regard to supplies for the army, Napoleon decreed that all the troops in turn should enter Moscow a la maraude * to obtain provisions for themselves, so that the army might have its future provided for.
Even philanthropy did not have the desired effect.
Others have disgraced themselves to the extent of disobeying sentinels and officers, and have abused and beaten them.
That army, like a herd of cattle run wild and trampling underfoot the provender which might have saved it from starvation, disintegrated and perished with each additional day it remained in Moscow.
Besides, Monsieur Kiril, you have only to say a word to the captain, you know.
The other day if it had not been for you that affair would have ended ill.
People said they were not Christians, but they too have souls.
Pierre, girt with a rope round his waist and wearing shoes Karataev had made for him from some leather a French soldier had torn off a tea chest and brought to have his boots mended with, went up to the sick man and squatted down beside him.
They have a hospital here.
What have they done? the prisoners on one side and another were heard saying as they gazed on the charred ruins.
Just see what the blackguards have looted....
Ermolov wished to act on his own judgment, but Dokhturov insisted that he must have Kutuzov's instructions.
"There's nothing to be done, we'll have to wake him," said Shcherbinin, rising and going up to the man in the nightcap who lay covered by a greatcoat.
The lesson of the Tarutino battle and of the day before it, which Kutuzov remembered with pain, must, he thought, have some effect on others too.
Like an experienced sportsman he knew that the beast was wounded, and wounded as only the whole strength of Russia could have wounded it, but whether it was mortally wounded or not was still an undecided question.
They want to run to see how they have wounded it.
It seems to them that when they have thought of two or three contingencies" (he remembered the general plan sent him from Petersburg) "they have foreseen everything.
What news have you brought me?
One must have the prospect of a promised land to have the strength to move.
An army gains a victory, and at once the rights of the conquering nation have increased to the detriment of the defeated.
That was a misfortune no one could remedy, for the peasants of the district burned their hay rather than let the French have it.
Let us imagine two men who have come out to fight a duel with rapiers according to all the rules of the art of fencing.
People have called this kind of war "guerrilla warfare" and assume that by so calling it they have explained its meaning.
The French, retreating in 1812--though according to tactics they should have separated into detachments to defend themselves--congregated into a mass because the spirit of the army had so fallen that only the mass held the army together.
Denisov had two hundred, and Dolokhov might have as many more, but the disparity of numbers did not deter Denisov.
We have each of us two pistols....
Denisov himself intended going with the esaul and Petya to the edge of the forest where it reached out to Shamshevo, to have a look at the part of the French bivouac they were to attack next day.
After talking for some time with the esaul about next day's attack, which now, seeing how near they were to the French, he seemed to have definitely decided on, Denisov turned his horse and rode back.
I have several like it, said Petya, blushing.
I have some raisins, fine ones; you know, seedless ones.
We have a new sutler and he has such capital things.
Have some, gentlemen, have some!
I have brought some with me, here they are"--and he showed a bag--"a hundred flints.
Where have they put him?
Have they fed him?
I have brought a spare uniform.
"Have you had that youngster with you long?" he asked Denisov.
And I say boldly that I have not a single man's life on my conscience.
"Now, why have you kept this lad?" he went on, swaying his head.
I have two French uniforms in it.
I have a pistol, whispered he.
"If you were counting on the evening soup, you have come too late," said a voice from behind the fire with a repressed laugh.
Do you know I have only just come back!
You can have some.
Perhaps he was really sitting on a wagon, but it might very well be that he was not sitting on a wagon but on a terribly high tower from which, if he fell, he would have to fall for a whole day or a whole month, or go on falling and never reach the bottom.
Nothing Petya could have seen now would have surprised him.
Denisov seemed to have forgotten Petya's very existence.
They understood that the saddles and Junot's spoon might be of some use, but that cold and hungry soldiers should have to stand and guard equally cold and hungry Russians who froze and lagged behind on the road (in which case the order was to shoot them) was not merely incomprehensible but revolting.
He did not think of Karataev who grew weaker every day and evidently would soon have to share that fate.
But I have not killed anyone or taken anything that was not mine, but have only helped my poorer brothers.
I deem it my duty to report to Your Majesty the condition of the various corps I have had occasion to observe during different stages of the last two or three days' march.
During the last few days many of the men have been seen to throw away their cartridges and their arms.
Many have died these last days on the road or at the bivouacs.
Beyond Smolensk there were several different roads available for the French, and one would have thought that during their stay of four days they might have learned where the enemy was, might have arranged some more advantageous plan and undertaken something new.
So one might have thought that regarding this period of the campaign the historians, who attributed the actions of the mass to the will of one man, would have found it impossible to make the story of the retreat fit their theory.
* "I have acted the Emperor long enough; it is time to act the general."
The source of this contradiction lies in the fact that the historians studying the events from the letters of the sovereigns and the generals, from memoirs, reports, projects, and so forth, have attributed to this last period of the war of 1812 an aim that never existed, namely that of cutting off and capturing Napoleon with his marshals and his army.
There never was or could have been such an aim, for it would have been senseless and its attainment quite impossible.
She saw his face, heard his voice, repeated his words and her own, and sometimes devised other words they might have spoken.
Why does he have that pain?
I said it then only because it would have been dreadful for him, but he understood it differently.
How glad I am you have come.
Won't you have some tea?
"You have improved in looks and grown more manly," continued the countess, taking her daughter's hand.
She did not know and would not have believed it, but beneath the layer of slime that covered her soul and seemed to her impenetrable, delicate young shoots of grass were already sprouting, which taking root would so cover with their living verdure the grief that weighed her down that it would soon no longer be seen or noticed.
Kutuzov merely shrugged his shoulders when one after another they presented projects of maneuvers to be made with those soldiers-- ill-shod, insufficiently clad, and half starved--who within a month and without fighting a battle had dwindled to half their number, and who at the best if the flight continued would have to go a greater distance than they had already traversed, before they reached the frontier.
Not only did his contemporaries, carried away by their passions, talk in this way, but posterity and history have acclaimed Napoleon as grand, while Kutuzov is described by foreigners as a crafty, dissolute, weak old courtier, and by Russians as something indefinite--a sort of puppet useful only because he had a Russian name.
It is hard for you, but still you are at home while they--you see what they have come to, said he, pointing to the prisoners.
Are you lost or have the wolves eaten you?
The Cossacks have taken their boots.
If it had been from the cold, ours would not have rotted either.
Two Frenchies have turned up.
Oh, I'll go across and have a look....
He rose and tried to walk, but staggered and would have fallen had not a soldier standing by held him up.
When on the following morning the Emperor said to the officers assembled about him: "You have not only saved Russia, you have saved Europe!" they all understood that the war was not ended.
All his life he had looked over the heads of the men around him, when he should have merely looked in front of him without straining his eyes.
The most cunning man could not have crept into her confidence more successfully, evoking memories of the best times of her youth and showing sympathy with them.
You, who have suffered so from the French, do not even feel animosity toward them.
I have it and he needs it.
At the same time that he refused the colonel's demand he made up his mind that he must have recourse to artifice when leaving Orel, to induce the Italian officer to accept some money of which he was evidently in need.
By being ruined I have become much richer.
But the more he tried to hide it the more clearly--clearer than any words could have done--did he betray to himself, to her, and to Princess Mary that he loved her.
"What I have certainly gained is freedom," he began seriously, but did not continue, noticing that this theme was too egotistic.
"And did you really see and speak to Napoleon, as we have been told?" said Princess Mary.
"People speak of misfortunes and sufferings," remarked Pierre, "but if at this moment I were asked: 'Would you rather be what you were before you were taken prisoner, or go through all this again?' then for heaven's sake let me again have captivity and horseflesh!
We lived under the late count--the kingdom of heaven be his!--and we have lived under you too, without ever being wronged.
Shall I have a talk with him and see what he thinks?
"I have seen the princess," she replied.
Pierre dined with them and would have spent the whole evening there, but Princess Mary was going to vespers and Pierre left the house with her.
I will call round in case you have any commissions for me, said he, standing before Princess Mary and turning red, but not taking his departure.
I don't know when I began to love her, but I have loved her and her alone all my life, and I love her so that I cannot imagine life without her.
"I am thinking of what you have told me," answered Princess Mary.
"I may have appeared strange and queer then," he thought, "but I was not so mad as I seemed.
From that evening she seemed to have forgotten all that had happened to her.
"Can she have loved my brother so little as to be able to forget him so soon?" she thought when she reflected on the change.
Natasha, I have asked you not to speak of that.
The storm-tossed sea of European history had subsided within its shores and seemed to have become calm.
He ought to have acted in this way and in that way.
What would then have become of the activity of all those who opposed the tendency that then prevailed in the government--an activity that in the opinion of the historians was good and beneficent?
If the aim was the dissemination of ideas, the printing press could have accomplished that much better than warfare.
Owing to various diplomatic considerations the Russian armies--just those which might have destroyed his prestige--do not appear upon the scene till he is no longer there.
He pretends to fall into a swoon and says senseless things that should have ruined him.
But the once proud and shrewd rulers of France, feeling that their part is played out, are even more bewildered than he, and do not say the words they should have said to destroy him and retain their power.
She had all that people are valued for, but little that could have made him love her.
She is a very admirable young woman and you always liked her, but now suddenly you have got some notion or other in your head.
Well, I have asked you, and now I won't interfere any more since you have secrets from your mother.
"Yes, yes," said she, "but you have no reason to regret the past, Count.
I have had so little happiness in life that every loss is hard for me to bear....
When a decision had to be taken regarding a domestic serf, especially if one had to be punished, he always felt undecided and consulted everybody in the house; but when it was possible to have a domestic serf conscripted instead of a land worker he did so without the least hesitation.
He could not have said by what standard he judged what he should or should not do, but the standard was quite firm and definite in his own mind.
What I want is that our children should not have to go begging.
"You know," said Natasha, "you have read the Gospels a great deal--there is a passage in them that just fits Sonya."
You always have such strange fancies!
Nicholas and his wife lived together so happily that even Sonya and the old countess, who felt jealous and would have liked them to disagree, could find nothing to reproach them with; but even they had their moments of antagonism.
Tomorrow I shall have to suffer, so today I'll go and rest.
"Perhaps he is not asleep; I'll have an explanation with him," she said to herself.
You have no idea how unhappy, how lonely, I feel when you are like that.
You should have seen her ecstasy, and how he caught it for having stayed away so long.
"I should never, never have believed that one could be so happy," she whispered to herself.
If the purpose of marriage is the family, the person who wishes to have many wives or husbands may perhaps obtain much pleasure, but in that case will not have a family.
Thus in a time of trouble ever memorable to him after the birth of their first child who was delicate, when they had to change the wet nurse three times and Natasha fell ill from despair, Pierre one day told her of Rousseau's view, with which he quite agreed, that to have a wet nurse is unnatural and harmful.
It very often happened that in a moment of irritation husband and wife would have a dispute, but long afterwards Pierre to his surprise and delight would find in his wife's ideas and actions the very thought against which she had argued, but divested of everything superfluous that in the excitement of the dispute he had added when expressing his opinion.
"And have you talked everything well over with Prince Theodore?" she asked.
The grown-up members of the family, not to mention his wife, were pleased to have back a friend whose presence made life run more smoothly and peacefully.
"Thank you, my dear, you have cheered me up," said she as she always did.
But best of all you have brought yourself back--for I never saw anything like it, you ought to give your wife a scolding!
One used to have to be a German--now one must dance with Tatawinova and Madame Kwudener, and wead Ecka'tshausen and the bwethwen.
Everything is strained to such a degree that it will certainly break, said Pierre (as those who examine the actions of any government have always said since governments began).
I have begun giving the elder ones marks every evening, showing how they have behaved.
Papa said he was to have no pudding.
Have you any idea why he went to Petersburg?
"Yes, I have noticed that," said Countess Mary.
A pity you were not there--what would you have said?
Of course he is right there," said Countess Mary, "but he forgets that we have other duties nearer to us, duties indicated to us by God Himself, and that though we might expose ourselves to risks we must not risk our children."
All that the fondest mother could do for her son you have done and are doing for him, and of course I am glad of it.
It would be good for him to have companions.
"I have quite lost the knack of talking to ladies," he said.
Natasha would have had no doubt as to the greatness of Pierre's idea, but one thing disconcerted her.
Would he have approved of you now, do you think?
"No, he would not have approved," said Pierre, after reflection.
What he would have approved of is our family life.
No, and if I had I shouldn't have recognized her.
I only wished to say that ideas that have great results are always simple ones.
"Have you done this?" he said, pointing to some broken sealing wax and pens.
I loved you, but I have orders from Arakcheev and will kill the first of you who moves forward.
But someday I shall have finished learning, and then I will do something.
In the first place the historian describes the activity of individuals who in his opinion have directed humanity (one historian considers only monarchs, generals, and ministers as being such men, while another includes also orators, learned men, reformers, philosophers, and poets).
But not to speak of the intrinsic quality of histories of this kind (which may possibly even be of use to someone for something) the histories of culture, to which all general histories tend more and more to approximate, are significant from the fact that after seriously and minutely examining various religious, philosophic, and political doctrines as causes of events, as soon as they have to describe an actual historic event such as the campaign of 1812 for instance, they involuntarily describe it as resulting from an exercise of power--and say plainly that that was the result of Napoleon's will.
We are so accustomed to that idea and have become so used to it that the question: why did six hundred thousand men go to fight when Napoleon uttered certain words, seems to us senseless.
Recognizing the falsity of this view of history, another set of historians say that power rests on a conditional delegation of the will of the people to their rulers, and that historical leaders have power only conditionally on carrying out the program that the will of the people has by tacit agreement prescribed to them.
But in that case, if the force that moves nations lies not in the historic leaders but in the nations themselves, what significance have those leaders?
If the whole activity of the leaders serves as the expression of the people's will, as some historians suppose, then all the details of the court scandals contained in the biographies of a Napoleon or a Catherine serve to express the life of the nation, which is evident nonsense; but if it is only some particular side of the activity of an historical leader which serves to express the people's life, as other so-called "philosophical" historians believe, then to determine which side of the activity of a leader expresses the nation's life, we have first of all to know in what the nation's life consists.
If we unite both these kinds of history, as is done by the newest historians, we shall have the history of monarchs and writers, but not the history of the life of the peoples.
If the animals in front are continually changing and the direction of the whole herd is constantly altered, this is because in order to follow a given direction the animals transfer their will to the animals that have attracted our attention, and to study the movements of the herd we must watch the movements of all the prominent animals moving on all sides of the herd.
Whenever an event occurs a man appears or men appear, by whose will the event seems to have taken place.
Experience shows us that whatever event occurs it is always related to the will of one or of several men who have decreed it.
Napoleon could not have commanded an invasion of Russia and never did so.
Men uniting in these combinations always assume such relations toward one another that the larger number take a more direct share, and the smaller number a less direct share, in the collective action for which they have combined.
There we have command and power in their primary form.
History shows us that these justifications of the events have no common sense and are all contradictory, as in the case of killing a man as the result of recognizing his rights, and the killing of millions in Russia for the humiliation of England.
But these justifications have a very necessary significance in their own day.
Examining only those expressions of the will of historical persons which, as commands, were related to events, historians have assumed that the events depended on those commands.
But examining the events themselves and the connection in which the historical persons stood to the people, we have found that they and their orders were dependent on events.
The establishment of this simple and obvious law should be enough.
All seriously thinking historians have involuntarily encountered this question.
But I have lifted my hand and let it fall.
In our time the majority of so-called advanced people--that is, the crowd of ignoramuses--have taken the work of the naturalists who deal with one side of the question for a solution of the whole problem.
Similarly a man who committed a murder twenty years ago and has since lived peaceably and harmlessly in society seems less guilty and his action more due to the law of inevitability, to someone who considers his action after twenty years have elapsed than to one who examined it the day after it was committed.
If we have a large range of examples, if our observation is constantly directed to seeking the correlation of cause and effect in people's actions, their actions appear to us more under compulsion and less free the more correctly we connect the effects with the causes.
I lift it, but ask myself: could I have abstained from lifting my arm at the moment that has already passed?
That I did not lift my arm a moment later does not prove that I could have abstained from lifting it then.
And since I could make only one movement at that single moment of time, it could not have been any other.
But even if--imagining a man quite exempt from all influences, examining only his momentary action in the present, unevoked by any cause--we were to admit so infinitely small a remainder of inevitability as equaled zero, we should even then not have arrived at the conception of complete freedom in man, for a being uninfluenced by the external world, standing outside of time and independent of cause, is no longer a man.
In the first case, if inevitability were possible without freedom we should have reached a definition of inevitability by the laws of inevitability itself, that is, a mere form without content.
In the second case, if freedom were possible without inevitability we should have arrived at unconditioned freedom beyond space, time, and cause, which by the fact of its being unconditioned and unlimited would be nothing, or mere content without form.
We should in fact have reached those two fundamentals of which man's whole outlook on the universe is constructed--the incomprehensible essence of life, and the laws defining that essence.
(3) The connection between cause and effect has no beginning and can have no end.
All human sciences have traveled along that path.
In another form but along the same path of reflection the other sciences have proceeded.
I'm so glad I have you.
We're going to have a baby, not a sin.
It wouldn't have been so much fun for him if she had reacted the way he did when she told him she was pregnant.
You're going to have a little brother or sister.
She could have asked, but that might tip her hand.
I have everything packed.
I didn't have much of an idea about the cost of raising children then, either.
I already have a son and daughter.
We'll have to be careful about that with the new baby.
And yet, in a way, waiting this long might have been an advantage.
They would have some time to enjoy a late Christmas at home when they returned.
Of course, Alex didn't have any gray hair yet, and his lips were fuller - more defined.
He always looked nice, but normally he would have worn a suit for the occasion.
With everything going on, Carmen didn't have time to worry about flying, but when they were all sitting at the airport, she finally had time to stew over it.
"I have been so excited since father said you were coming!" she said to Alex, but her eyes included Carmen.
We have some cold days, but mostly it is warm.
"Alex tells me you have some nice horses on your ranch," Carmen said to Señor Medena.
I have a mare; and we have a five-year-old mare with a colt, a four year-old filly, and a two-year-old filly... oh, and my mare is going to foal again in January.
We also have a couple of wild asses.
We... actually, I... was thinking about adopting a few wild horses from out west where they have too many.
Now I have reinforcements.
I hope to have a love like yours some day.
Actually, she hadn't thought how it looked to others - and there had never been any doubt in her mind that she was fortunate to have Alex.
Of course, they didn't have the same mother, either.
What you have on is fine, but if you want to freshen up and wear something else, go ahead.
No. Do they ever have a formal dinner?
Do you have a short-sleeved shirt in there for me?
It should have arrived at Hugson's Siding at midnight, but it was already five o'clock and the gray dawn was breaking in the east when the little train slowly rumbled up to the open shed that served for the station-house.
Have you come to take me to Hugson's Ranch?
Uncle Henry says 'Eureka' means 'I have found it.'
Then it must have happened while I was asleep, he said thoughtfully.
He and Uncle Hugson have been having a fine visit.
"Why have you dared to intrude your unwelcome persons into the secluded Land of the Mangaboos?" he asked, sternly.
"We don't have to prove it," answered Dorothy, indignantly.
Sorry to have troubled you; but it couldn't be helped.
We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
All of our Princes and Rulers have grown upon this one bush from time immemorial.
"That is a matter I have not quite decided upon," was the reply.
Let's pick her while we have the chance, before the man with the star comes back.
Only a fairy country could have veg'table people; and only in a fairy country could Eureka and Jim talk as we do.
"Don't know," said Dorothy, "but it must have been humbug."
"I have an idea," said the Wizard, "that there are fishes in these brooks.
But it is a long time since I have had any sleep, and I'm tired.
"And they have no hearts; so they can't love anyone – not even themselves," declared the boy.
I have heard of this wonderful magic.
Everything the vines touched they crushed, and our adventurers were indeed thankful to have escaped being cast among them.
"We ought to have called him and Dorothy when we were first attacked," added Eureka.
"It's good, anyway," said Zeb, "or those little rascals wouldn't have gobbled it up so greedily."
All the people I have ever met before were very plain to see.
We have seen no people since we arrived, so we came to this house to enquire our way.
"And we do not have to be so particular about our dress," remarked the man.
"It occurs to me you have a great deal to make you happy, even while invisible," remarked the Wizard.
"You'll have to make a dash, Jim," said the Wizard, "and run as fast as you can go."
"I have no money with me," said the Wizard, evasively.
You haven't many teeth left, Jim, but the few you have are sharp enough to make me shudder.
There's going to be trouble, and my sword isn't stout enough to cut up those wooden bodies--so I shall have to get out my revolvers.
"If we had known we were coming we might have brought along several other useful things," responded the Wizard.
We have time, just now, and I'd rather face the invis'ble bears than those wooden imps.
But they've been very scarce for a few years and we usually have to be content with elephants or buffaloes, answered the creature, in a regretful tone.
"You have everything you wish for," said the Princess.
"You have queer friends, seems to me," replied the kitten, in a surly tone.
"If you have, it is invisible," said the Princess.
Kittens have no consciences, so they eat whatever pleases them.
"It would have spoiled the fun," replied the kitten, yawning.
Then, on Friday those who have done the best may stand up and read their compositions to the school.
You may have them, if you will give me the whistle.
The lesson you have learned to-day is never to pay too dear for a whistle.
At last James Hogg said, "It's of no use; all we can do is to go home and tell the master that we have lost his whole flock."
But there was no shepherd in Scotland that could have done better than Sirrah did that night.
Send word to the captain not to wait for me, for I have changed my mind.
For if the boy had been as well painted as the cherries, the birds would have been afraid to come near him.
Well, I have here a puzzle which I think will test your wisdom.
"I have heard that you are the wisest man in the world," she said, "and surely this simple thing ought not to puzzle you."
"Look at the flowers carefully," said the queen, "and let us have your answer."
Now I have a mind to give this book to one of you
What would you have done?
The Romans answered, We must have time to think of this matter.
And now they would have spared him; but he was true to his promise,-- as soon as the song was finished, he threw himself headlong into the sea.
He has given you the air in which to move and have homes.
They are resting there for the night and have no fear of danger from us.
"You are a brave fellow, Mr. Ant," he said; "but you have a heavy load to carry."
But we have no oars.
A few said that there was one man in their neighborhood who seemed to have had some sort of good luck.
I thank you for what you have done for me.
Analysts declared each successive generation might be "the first to have a lower standard of living than their parents."
From that vantage point, if you had tried to look fifty years ahead to what the world would be like in the year 2500 BC, you would have expected very little change.
And you would have been right.
Never have I found in the greenhouses of the North such heart-satisfying roses as the climbing roses of my southern home.
But in the excitement of carrying me to church my father lost the name on the way, very naturally, since it was one in which he had declined to have a part.
I fancy I still have confused recollections of that illness.
If we have once seen, "the day is ours, and what the day has shown."
He was a great hunter, I have been told, and a celebrated shot.
Some have asked what I got to eat; if I did not feel lonesome; if I was not afraid; and the like.
And what little they have promised they will not perform!
I have faith only in God and the lofty destiny of our adored monarch.
Lavater would have said I lack the bump of paternity.
Don't joke; I mean to have a serious talk with you.
You know I did all a father could for their education, and they have both turned out fools.
I have said and still say that the theater of war is Poland and the enemy will never get beyond the Niemen.
Bennigsen should have advanced into Prussia sooner, then things would have taken a different turn...
Do you have to go back right away?
Such a pleasant day and evening should have ended with a restful night and happy dreams, but it didn't.
He wouldn't have approved - of that she was certain.
And so, if she couldn't have it in her head, she'd put it into his.
I would have helped.
She would never have considered back-talking her parents.
But I guess if we have, it's no worse than having a child out of wedlock.
If God thought it was wrong, nothing we could have done would have been successful.
Did she have a window seat?
Once I lived on top the earth, but for many years I have had my factory in this spot--half way up Pyramid Mountain.
I won't have any quarrelling in the Land of Oz, I can tell you!
"I have no need to breathe," returned the other.
"That I have forgotten," replied the Gump's Head, "and I do not think it is of much importance.
And now, my friends, please to excuse My lisping and my stammers; I, for this once, have done my best, And so--I'll make my manners.
Today you may stand up before the school and read what you have written about the turnip.
May each evening see that all thy wishes have been performed.
Men have told me that there is no riddle so cunning that you can not solve it.
Some would have smiled, if they had dared.
Sarcas himself could not have served the king half so well.
"I have," answered the man, "--a beautiful girl."
If you have an unwavering commitment to an idea that all things will be good all the time, then that is irrational.
I see how human ingenuity and new technologies have eliminated previously insoluble problems once we stand back and let free markets do what they do best: direct the allocation of capital to find a solution.
It was so cool up in the tree that Miss Sullivan proposed that we have our luncheon there.
"What would you have me do?" he said at last.
In the first place, I tell you we have no right to question the Emperor about that, and secondly, if the Russian nobility had that right, the Emperor could not answer such a question.
The actors of 1812 have long since left the stage, their personal interests have vanished leaving no trace, and nothing remains of that time but its historic results.
They have two fertilized eggs and they want final consent.
"And that is the safest kind of a Wizard to have," replied Ozma, promptly.
The boys wore long hair and striped sweaters and yelled their college yell every other step they took, to the great satisfaction of the populace, which was glad to have this evidence that their lungs were in good condition.
I will stir up all the farmers between here and Concord, and those fellows will have a hot time of it.
They show that three toes have been lost from the left forefoot.
He shall have all the rooms in the house, and the ladies' parlor, too, I'll go right round to the Planters' and fetch him back.
"I am sure I would rather have a good bow with arrows" said Ethelred.
I have I paid you my bill?
You may come to America and be poor, but if you work hard, your children will have a better life and a better opportunity.
They may have missed on specifics (such as each of us owning a personal jet pack and a flying car) but in general were dead-on.
She and Dad would have loved Alex.
Sometimes we have to accept change, if we want to move forward.
Then he said to the first man, "Have you a son?"
They have no friend Iolaus to burn with a hot iron the root of the hydra's head, but as soon as one head is crushed, two spring up.
They have decided that Buonaparte has burnt his boats, and I believe that we are ready to burn ours.
It is the cross I have to bear.
"Have you never thought of marrying your prodigal son Anatole?" she asked.
Maybe not, but it would have made a difference if I had known how you felt.
Where have you been?
"Henry Longfellow," said the teacher, "why have you not written?"
We have, in fact, envisioned a better world and have made it happen.
During the whole trip I did not have one fit of temper, there were so many things to keep my mind and fingers busy.
They have got to live a man's life, pushing all these things before them, and get on as well as they can.
A fine idea to have a blind general!
Yes, I have heard of his scheme for perpetual peace, and it is very interesting but hardly feasible.
She could not have read the letter as she did not even know it had arrived.