Kano was one of the original seven Hausa states.
Barth's descriptions of the wealth and importance of the city attracted great attention in Europe, and Kano was subsequently visited by several travellers, missionaries, and students of Hausa, but none was permitted to live permanently in the city.
In the north the people are mostly Hausa, in the west they belong to the Tshi-speaking clans, while on the coast they are members of the Ewe (Dahomey) tribes.
The Hausa are often traders, traversing the country in large caravans.
The chief African traders are Hausa immigrants.
The Hausa system of government and taxation was adopted by the Fula when in the early part of the 19th century that Mahommedan people overran the Hausa states.
It has been erroneously stated that the Fula imposed Mahommedanism on the Hausa states.
Sodium carbonates), and with herds of cattle and sheep, receiving in return cotton and hardware and kolas; (4) the Hausa merchants.
Besides Hausa, who represent the indigenous population, there are large colonies of Kanuri (from Bornu) and Nupians in Kano.
Bontuku is peopled largely by Wongara and Hausa, and most of the inhabitants, who number some 3000, are Moslems. The town, which was founded in the 15th century or earlier, is walled, contains various mosques and generally presents the appearance of an eastern city.
A great caravan annually passes through Air, consisting of several thousand camels, carrying salt from Bilma to the Hausa states.
In Nigeria the Hausa tribes are coming to be better known, and to respond to the Christian teaching.
Sartorius, who had been sent ahead with twenty Hausa only, found Kumasi still deserted.
On the same day, leaving the Hausa at Kumasi, the expedition began the return march of i so m.
Three days afterwards the Kumasi warriors attacked a party of Hausa sent with the chief object of discovering the golden stool.
However, it was not till the 23rd of June that the governor and all the Europeans save three, together with 600 Hausa of all ranks, sallied out of the fort.
Avoiding the main road, held by the enemy in force, they attacked a weakly held stockade, and succeeded in cutting their way through, with a loss of two British officers mortally wounded, 39 Hausa killed, and double that number wounded or missing.
A force of 100 Hausa, with three white men (Captain Bishop, Mr Ralph and Dr Hay), was left behind in Kumasi fort with rations to last three weeks.
Fula) Languages was privately printed in 1861, and his translation of the Psalms into Hausa was published by the Bible Society in 1881.
The north of Cameroon is inhabited by Fula and Hausa and allied tribes, the south by Bantuspeaking races.
The Fula, as also most of the Hausa, are Moslems, the other tribes are pagans.
The Hausa States) and the greater part of Bornu.
The most important race in Northern Nigeria is that of the Hausa (q.v.), among whom the superior classes adopted Mahommedanism in the 13th and 14th centuries.
While the lower classes remained pagan, a fairly civilized system of administration, with an efficient judicial and fiscal organization, was established in the Hausa territories.
At the beginning of the 19th century the Hausa territories were conquered by another dominant Mahommedan race, the Fula (q.v.), who form a separate caste of cattle-rearers.
Arab merchants are settled in some of the larger Hausa towns.
Next in importance among the Hausa towns are Bauchi (or Yakoba), pop. over 50,000, 140 m.
Of Sokoto, is an important entrepot for trade from the hinterland of the Guinea coast and the Hausa states.
In addition to the towns mentioned there are many others containing populations of from 10,000 to 20,000, the bulk of the inhabitants of the Hausa countries being town dwellers.
Good roads connect some of the great Hausa cities, and Kano and Kuka are starting-points for caravans across the Sahara to the Mediterranean.
There was also a very considerable caravan trade in native goods which the industrious Hausa population carried for great distances through the western and central states of the Sudan.
Heinrich Barth made a prolonged stay in various Hausa cities at dates between 1851 and 1855.
The sultan of Sokoto throughout the 19th century exercised an overlordship over the Hausa states extending east from the Niger to Bornu and southward to the Benue and Adamawa.
Between the Niger and the kingdom of Bornu (q.v.) the country was inhabited by various black tribes, of whom the Hausa occupied the plains.
Under the influence of Berber and Arab tribes, who embraced Mahommedanism, the Hausa advanced in civilization; founded large cities, and developed a considerable trade, not only with the neighbouring countries, but, via the Sahara, with the Barbary states.
In this century arose a dynasty of the Habe, a name now believed to be identical with Hausa, who obtained power over a large area of the northern portion of the present British protectorate.
The Hausa, whose conversion to Mahommedanism began in the 12th century, were still in the 18th century partly pagans, though their rulers were followers of the Prophet.
Dwelling among the Hausa were a number of Fula, mostly herdsmen, and these were devout Mahommedans.
In a few years the Fula had subdued most of the Hausa states, some, like Kano, yielding easily in order to preserve their trade, others, like Katsena, offering a stubborn resistance.
Where the forest thins to the savanna and steppe, and communication is easier, are found the larger kingdoms and " empires " such as, in the north those established by the Songhai, Hausa, Fula, Bagirmi, Ba-Hima, &c., and in the south the states of Lunda, Kazembe, the Ba-Rotse, &c.
A modern parallel to the spread of Bantu speech is found in the rise of the Hausa language, which is gradually enlarging its sphere of influence in the western and central Sudan.
Such are the Mandingo, the Songhai, the Fula, Hausa, Kanuri, Bagirmi, Kanembu, and the peoples of Wadai and Darfur; the few aborigines who persist, on the southern fringe of the Chad basin, are imperfectly known.