The most notable Pharaonic queen in her own right was Hatshepsut in the XVIIIth Dynasty, but her reign was ignored by the later rulers even of her own family.
As the mothers of Hatshepsut and Amenophis III.
On the east bank at Karnak stand the great state temple of Amen-Re with its obelisks of Hatshepsut and Tethmosis I.
Hatshepsut, Tethmosis III.
Towards the end of his reign, his elder sons being dead, Tethmosis associated a~ep- Hatshepsut, his daughter by Ahmosi, with himself upon the throne.
Northward and far back in the foot-hills is the Ptolemaic temple of Deir el Medina, and beyond under the cliffs of Deir el Bahri the terrace temple of Queen Hatshepsut, the walls of which are adorned with scenes from her expedition to Puoni (Somaliland) in search of incense trees, and many other subjects.
The principal monument of this period is the temple of Deir el Bahri, the funeral temple of Hatshepsut, on which she recorded the principal event of her reign, the expedition to Punt.
After her husbands death the ambitious Hatshepsut assumed the full regal power; upon her monuments she wears the masculine garb and aspect of a king though the feminine gender is retained for her in the inscriptions.
Obelisk of Hatshepsut at Karnak, 97 ft.
The other bears the record of a second expedition to the same land of Punt, undertaken by command of Queen Hatshepsut, 1600 B.C. It is preserved in the vividly chiselled and richly coloured decorations portraying the history of the reign of this famous Pharaoh on the walls of the "Stage Temple" at Thebes.
At Karnak Hatshepsut labored chiefly to complete the works projected in the reigns of Tethmosis I.
Then came the religious fanaticism of Akhenaton, mutilating all figures of Ammon and all inscriptions containing his name; this made havoc of the exquisite monuments of Hatshepsut; and the restorers of the XIXth Dynasty, refusing to recognize the legitimacy of the queen, had no scruples in replacing her names by those of the associate kings Tethmosis I., II.
These acts of vandalism took place throughout Egypt, but in the distant mines of Sinai the cartouches of Hatshepsut are untouched.
Hatshepsut has no place, nor is her reign referred to on any later monument.i The immense energy of Tethmosis III.
And Hatshepsut (tog ft.
Hatshepsut cultivated the arts of peace.
Among the "harbours of incense" exploited by various Pharaohs during some twentyfive centuries it is impossible to believe that the island could be missed by the Egyptian galleys on their way to the "Land of Punt," identified by several writers with Somaliland; nor that, though the roadsteads of the African coast were perhaps oftener frequented, and for other freights besides myrrh and frankincense, the shores of Sokotra were neglected by such ardent explorers as those, for instance, of Queen Hatshepsut of the r8th dynasty.