He attacked the desert city of Hatra, westward of the Tigris, whose importance is still attested by grand ruins.
Trajan still thought of returning to Mesopotamia and of avenging his defeat at Hatra, but he was stricken with sickness and compelled to take ship for Italy.
The interesting oasis town el-Hacir (Hatra) is near the Tharthar.
Hatra, an interesting fortress which seems to have been Aramaean, fell, and the army advanced to Hit, where it found the fleet that was subsequently transferred to the Tigris.
Hatra successfully withstood siege, however, and Hadrian abandoned Mesopotamia, setting the boundary at the Euphrates.
Unfortunately they contain practically nothing that is not of Christian origin.4 On the death of Aurelius Hatra aided Niger against Septimius Severus in 194; Osroene rose against Rome, and Nisibis was besieged and other Roman places taken; but Septimius Severus appeared in person (195), and from Nisibis as headquarters subdued the whole country, of which he made Nisibis metropolis, raising it to the rank of a colony, the Sinjar district, where Arabs from Yemen had settled, being incorporated.
Hatra, however, was besieged twice in vain.
Hatra resisted the first Persian attack as it 4 The earliest inscription in Syriac yet known dates from A.D.
Andrae's Die Ruinen von Hatra (1908).
In the case of the architectural remains, the Greek tradition is obvious at Hatra (Jacquerel, Rev. archeol., 18 97 [i i ], 343 f.), and in the relics of the temple at Kingavar (Dieulafoy, L' Art antique de la Perse, v.
The remainder of the vassal statesCarmania, Susiana, Mesenc were ended by Ardashir; and the autonomous desert fortress of Hatra in Mesopotamia was destroyed by his son Shapur (Sapor) I., according to the Persian and Arabian traditions, which, in this point, are deserving of credence.