GOSLAR, a town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, romantically situated on the Gose, an affluent of the Oker, at the north foot of the Harz, 24 m.
There are four Evangelical churches, a Roman Catholic church, a synagogue, several schools, a natural science museum, containing a collection of Harz minerals, the Fenkner museum of antiquities and a number of small foundations.
Foot of the Harz Mountains, 12 m.
In the vicinity is a cliff or ridge of rock called Teufelsmauer (Devil's wall), from which fine views are obtained across the plain and into the deep gorges of the Harz Mountains.
In the Erzgebirge, the Thuringian Forest and the Harz Mountains.
Of continental mines we may mention those in Saxony and in the Harz, Germany; those of Carinthia, Austria; and especially those of the southern provinces of Spain.
In smelting at once in the same blast-furnace ores of different character, the old use of separate processes of precipitation, roasting and reduction, and general reduction prevailing in the Harz Mountains, Freiberg and other places, to suit local conditions, has been abandoned.
The effect of the two processes on the purity of the market lead is clearly shown by the two following analyses by Hampe, which represent lead from Lautenthal in the Harz Mountains, where the Parkes process replaced that of Pattinson, the ores and smelting process remaining practically the same: - It is absolutely necessary for the success of the Parkes process that the zinc and lead should contain only a small amount of impurity.
During his reign silver mines were opened in the Harz Mountains, towns were founded, roads were made, and the general condition of the country was improved.
ALEXISBAD, a spa of Germany, in the duchy of Anhalt, lying under the Harz mountains, 1000 ft.
It may also be accompanied by pyrites, galena, arsenides and antimonides, quartz, calcite, dolomite, &c. It is widely distributed, and is particularly abundant in Germany (the Harz, Silesia), Austro-Hungary, Belgium, the United States and in England (Cumberland, Derbyshire, Cornwall, North Wales).
HILDESHEIM, a town and episcopal see of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, beautifully situated at the north foot of the Harz Mountains, on the right bank of the Innerste, 18 m.
It strictly designates only that district in upper Saxony that is bounded by the Werra, the Harz Mountains, the Saale and the Thuringian Forest; in common parlance, however, it is frequently used as equivalent to the Thuringian states, i.e.
420 when they occupied the district between the Harz Mountains and the Thuringian Forest.
The northern portion of the kingdom was given to the Saxons who had joined him against Hermannfried; the southern part was added to Austrasia; and the name of Thuringia was confined to the district bounded by the Harz Mountains, the Werra, the Thuringian Forest and the Saale.
Galena is met with at all places where lead is mined; of localities which have yielded finely crystallized specimens the following may be selected for mention: Derbyshire, Alston in Cumberland, Laxey in the Isle of Man (where crystals measuring almost a foot across have been found), Neudorf in the Harz, Rossie in New York and Joplin in Missouri.
Mention may also be made here of clausthalite (lead selenide, PbSe) and altaite (lead telluride, PbTe), which, with their lead-grey colour and perfect cubic cleavage, closely resemble galena in appearance; these species are named after the localities at which they were originally found, namely, Klausthal in the Harz and the Altai mountains in Asiatic Russia.
The southern portion of the province is hilly, and in the district of Klausenburg, containing the Harz, mountainous.
The whole of Hanover dips from the Harz Mountains to the north, and the rivers consequently flow in that direction.
In circuit; the lakes of Bederkesa and some others in the moorlands of the north; the Seeburger See, near Duderstadt; and the Oderteich, in the Harz, 2100 ft.
The climate in the low-lying districts near the coast is moist and foggy, in the plains mild, on the Harz mountains severe and variable.
Apples, pears, plums and cherries are the principal kinds of fruit cultivated, while the wild red cranberries from the Harz and the black bilberries from the Luneburger Heide form an important article of export.
The Harz Mountains are rich in silver, lead, iron and copper; coal is found around Osnabruck, on the Deister, at Osterwald, &c., lignite in various places; salt-springs of great richness exist at Egestorf shall and Neuhall near Hanover, and at Luneburg; and petroleum may be obtained south of Celle.
The iron works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near Osnabruck; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at Hanover, Linden, Osnabruck, Hameln, Geestemunde, Harburg, Osterode, &c., and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest.
AUGUST GOTTLIEB SPANGENBERG (1704-1792), Count Zinzendorf's successor, and bishop of the Moravian Brethren, was born on the 15th of July 1704 at Klettenberg, on the south of the Harz Mountains, where his father, Georg Spangenberg, was court preacher and ecclesiastical inspector of the countship of Hohenstein.
The eastern part of the chain passed from South France through the Vosges, the Black Forest, Thuringia, Harz, the Fichtelgebirge, Bohemia, the Sudetes, and possibly farther east; this constitutes the " Varischen Alps " of Suess.
Granites, porphyries and porphyrites belonging to this period occur in the Saxon Erzgebirge, the Harz, Thiiringerwald, Vosges, Brittany, Cornwall and Christiania.
These are Franconia (Franken), which embraces the districts of Bamberg, Schweinfurt and Wurzburg on the upper Main; Swabia (Schwaben), in which is included Wtirttemberg, parts of Bavaria and Baden and Hohenzollern; the Palatinate (Pfalz), embracing Bavaria west of the Rhine and the contiguous portion of Baden; Rhineland, applied to Rhenish Prussia, Nassau, Hesse-Darmstadt and parts of Bavaria and Baden; Vogtland, the mountainous country lying in the south-west corner of the kingdom of Saxony; Lusatia (Lausitz), the eastern portion of the kingdom of Saxony and the adjacent portion of Prussia watered by the upper Spree; Thuringia (Thulingen), the country lying south of the Harz Mountains and including the Saxon duchies; East Frlesland (Ost Friesland), the country lying between the lower course of the Weser and the Ems, and Westphalia (Westfalen), the fertile plain lying north and west of the Harz Mountains and extending to the North Sea and the Dutch frontier.
The plateau is bounded on the north by the Harz, an isolated group of mountains, rich in minerals, with its highest elevation in the bare summit of the Brocken (3747 ft-).
To the west of the Harz a series of hilly tracts is comprised under the name of the Weser Mountains, out of which above Minden the river Weser bursts by the Porta Westphalica.
North, in the Hunsrck, the Taunus, the Eifel and Westerwald, the Harz and the Frankenwald, the ancient floor is composed mainly of Devonian beds.
HARZ MOUNTAINS (also spelt Hartz, Ger.
The north-western and higher part of the mass is called the Ober or Upper Harz; the south-eastern and more extensive part, the Unter or Lower Harz; while the N.W.
Slopes of the Upper Harz form the Vorharz.
The Brocken group, which divides the Upper and Lower Harz, is generally regarded as belonging to the first.
The highest summits of the Upper Harz are the Brocken (3747 ft.), the Heinrichshohe (3425 ft.), the Konigsberg (3376 ft.) and the Wurmberg (3176 ft.); of the Lower Harz, the Josephshohe in the Auerberg group and the Viktorhohe in the Ramberg, each 1887 ft.
The Harz is a mass of Palaeozoic rock rising through the Mesozoic strata of north Germany, and bounded on all sides by faults.
The structure of the Harz is very complicated, but the general strike of the folds, especially in the Oberharz plateau, is N.E.
The whole mass evidently belongs to the ancient Hercynian chain of North Europe (which, indeed, derives its name from the Harz), and is the north-easterly continuation of the rocks of the Ardennes and the Eifel.
Owing to its position as the first range which the northerly winds strike after crossing the north German plain, the climate on the summit of the Harz is generally raw and damp, even in summer.
But while the summer is thus relatively ungenial on the top of the Harz, the usual summer heat of the lower-lying valleys is greatly tempered and cooled; so that, adding this to the natural attractions of the scenery, the deep forests, and the legendary and romantic associations attaching to every fantastic rock and ruined castle, the Harz is a favourite summer resort of the German people.
Some of these, and other places not named, add to their natural attractions the advantage of mineral springs and baths, pine-needle baths, whey cures, &c. The Harz is penetrated by several railways, among them a rack-railway up the Brocken, opened in 1898.