By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to Harun al-Rashid, Nicephorus committed himself to a war with the Saracens.
By the death of Harun in 809, Nicephorus was left free to deal with the Bulgarian king, Krum, who was harassing his northern frontiers.
815), the son and successor ci Harun al-Rashid, caused an Arabic version of Ptolemy's great astronomical work (rat, meyio-Tf) to be made, which is known as the Almagest, the word being nothing more than the Gr.
Half a day's journey beyond Sura, on the Mesopotamian side of the river, are the extensive ruins of Haragla (Heraclea) and Rakka, once the capital of Harun al-Rashid (Nicephorium of Alexander; Callinicus of the Seleucids and Romans).
Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
Charlemagne in particular was closely connected with Jerusalem: the patriarch sent him the keys of the city and a standard in Boo; and in 807 Harun al-Rashid recognized this symbolical cession, and acknowledged Charlemagne as protector of Jerusalem and owner of the church of the Sepulchre.
During the 8th and 9th centuries, when the direct pass from Cocysus came into military use, Marasion (the older name had returned into general use) was often the Byzantine objective and was more than once retaken; but after 77 0, when Mansur incorporated it in "Palestine" it remained definitely in Moslem power and was refortified by Harun-alRashid.
1 7 So) this tomb bore an inscription setting forth that Ayesha Khanum, the wife of the governor of Bagdad, was buried here in 1488, her grave having been made in the ancient sepulchre of the lady Zobeide (Zobaida), granddaughter of Caliph Mansur and wife of Harun al-Rashid, who died in A.D.
The period of the greatest prosperity of Bagdad was the period from its foundation until the death of Mamun, the successor of Harun, in 833.
Depending on coloured tiles and gorgeous fabrics for their rich effects, nothing of the buildings of the times of Harun al-Rashid or Mamun, once counted so magnificent, have come down to us.
Euclid's Elements were first translated in the reign of Harun-al-Rashid (786-809), and revised by the order of Mamun.
In Bagdad, under the rule of Harun el Rashid and his successors, a still more flourishing school arose, where numerous translations of Greek medical works were made.
The old reservoirs on this route attributed to Zubeda, wife of Harun al Rashid, were destroyed during the Wahhabi raids early in the 19th century, and have not been repaired.
In the contest between the two sons of Harun al Rashid all Arabia sided with Mamun (812).
In 782 the Arabs under Harun al-Rashid penetrated as far as the Bosporus, and exacted an annual tribute as the price of an inglorious peace (see Caliphate, § C, 3 adiin.).
Before his coronation as emperor, Charles had entered into communications with the caliph of Bagdad, Harun-al-Rashid, probably in order to protect the eastern Christians, and in 801 he had received an embassy and presents from Harun.
In the same year the patriarch of Jerusalem sent him the keys of the Holy Sepulchre; and in 807 Harun not only sent further gifts, but appears to have confirmed the emperor's rights in Jerusalem, which, however, probably amounted to no more than an undefined protectorate over the Christians in that part of the world.
Dicuil's knowledge of the islands north and west of Britain is evidently intimate; his references to Irish exploration and colonization, and to (more recent) Scandinavian devastation of the same, as far as the Faeroes, are noteworthy, like his notice of the elephant sent by Harun al-Rashid (in 801) to Charles the Great, the most curious item in a political and diplomatic intercourse of high importance.
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
It is believed that this mina divided by 12 unciae by the Romans is the origin of the Arabic ratl of 12 ukiyas, or 5500 grains (33), which is said to have been sent by Harun al-Rashid to Charlemagne, and so to have originated the French monetary pound of 5666 grains.
Mansur built a castle at Rafiqa opposite Rakka to control the country round, and his son Harun al-Rashid actually resided during most of his reign, not at Bagdad but at Rakka, where two generations later al-Battani of Harran was making the astronomical observations on which his tables were based (see Albategnius) Abu Qurra, bishop of Harran, and acquaintance of the caliph Ma'mun, who was one of the earlier Aramaean Christians to use Arabic, has been thought to have contributed to the influences For this and following section see further Caliphate and Persia: History.
In 803 he was called to Bagdad by Harun al-Rashid.
It had been rebuilt by Harun al-Rashid in 796 A.D., refortified at great expense by Saif addaula, the Hamdanid (loth century) and Saiked, and ruined by the crusaders.
Mansur, the second of the house, who transferred the seat of government to Bagdad, fought successfully against the peoples of Asia Minor, and the reigns of Harun al-Rashid (786-809) and Mamun (813833) were periods of extraordinary splendour.
From the `Araba travellers approach by a track which leads round Jebel Harun (Mt Hor) and enters the plain of Petra from the south; it is just possible to find a way in from the high plateau on the north; but the most impressive entrance is from the east, down a dark and narrow gorge, in places only to or 12 ft.
From the year Boo, it must be added, Africa only nominally belonged to the Abbasids; for, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid, Ibrahim b.
It came later into the possession of Harun al-Rashid.
Barmak, the head of that celebrated family the Barmecides, which played so important a part in the reign of Harun al-Rashid.
He assembled his army in the plains of Baradan north of Bagdad and began his march in the early spring of 780, taking with him his second son Harun, and leaving his elder son Musa as his lieutenant in Bagdad.
Thence he despatched an expeditionary force, nominally under the command of Harun, but in reality under that of his tutor, the Barmecide Yahya b.
Harun captured the fortress Samalu after a siege of thirty-eight days, the inhabitants surrendering on condition that they should not be killed or separated from one another.
In consequence of this feat, Mandi made Harun governor of the whole western part of the empire, including Azerbaijan and Armenia.
Irritated by this failure, the caliph in 781 sent Harun, accompanied by his chamberlain Rabi`, with an army of nearly ioo,000 men, with orders to carry the war to the very gates of Constantinople.
Harun then marched against Nicomedia, where he vanquished the domesticus, the chief commander of the Greek forces, and pitched his camp on the shores of the Bosporus.
This brilliant success so increased Mandi's affection for Harun that he appointed him successor-designate after Musa and named him al-Rashid (" the follower of the right cause").
- On the death of Mandi, Harun, following the advice of Yahya, b.
Harun ascended the throne without opposition.
Harun immediately sent against him an army of 50,000 men, under the command of Facll, whom he made governor of all the Caspian provinces.
Meanwhile Harun did not forget the hereditary enemy of Islam.
Harun further stipulated that Mamun should have as his share during the lifetime of his brother the government of the eastern part of the empire.
It was in the beginning of the following year, at the very moment when the Barmecides thought their position most secure, that Harun brought sudden ruin upon them.
Finally Harun resolved on their destruction, and Ja`far b.
Yahya, who had just taken leave of him after a day's hunting, was arrested, taken to the castle of Harun, and beheaded.
The new emperor Nicephorus, thinking himself strong enough to refuse the payment of tribute, wrote an insulting letter to Harun, who contented himself with replying: "Thou shalt not hear, but see, my answer."
When the news came to Rakka, where Harun was residing, not one of the ministers ventured to tell him, until at last a poet introduced it in a poem which pleased the monarch.
Thus Harun was obliged to take the field again.
Harun was only forty-five years of age.
Embassies passed between Charlemagne and Harun in the years 180 (A.D.
- On the death of Harun his minister, Fadl b.
Leaving the government of the capital in the hands of his son Harun al-Wathiq, he established himself at Samaria.