His wife was an heiress; and on the death of his childless uncle, Hartmann VI.
Hartmann of Potsdam, and is described by him in the Publicationen des astrophysikalischen Observatoriums zu Potsdam, Bd.
Complex spectra of stars of the solar type this is by no means the case; for, as Dr Hartmann remarks, " in the first place the lines in these spectra are so numerous that their complete measurement and reduction would require many days, and in the second place a rigorous reduction of such material has hitherto not been at all possible because the wave-lengths of the lines are not known with sufficient accuracy.
Hartmann overcame these and many other difficulties by directly superposing the image of the spectrogram of a star, having iron comparison lines, upon the image of a spectrogram of the sun taken also with iron comparison lines.
IMMANUEL HERMANN FICHTE (originally [[Hartmann) Von]] (1797-1879), German philosopher, son of J.
(1902); article by Karl Hartmann in Allegemeine deutsche Biographie xlviii.
Von Hartmann or F.
The pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann does not, however, exclude a certain ultimate mysticism, which bears some analogy to that of Buddhism.
Pfleiderer, Der moderne Pessimismus (1875); Agnes Taubert (Hartmann), Der Pessimismus and seine Gegner (1873); Gass, Optimismus and Pessimismus (1876); Rehmke, Die Philos.
Hartmann, Geschichte d.
KARL ROBERT EDUARD VON HARTMANN (1842-1906), German philosopher, was born in Berlin on the 23rd of February 1842.
The conception of the Unconscious, by which von Hartmann describes his ultimate metaphysical principle, is not at bottom as paradoxical as it sounds, being merely a new and mysterious designation for the Absolute of German metaphysicians.
Von Hartmann thus combines "pantheism" with "panlogism" in a manner adumbrated by Schelling in his "positive philosophy."
Although von Hartmann is a pessimist, his pessimism is by no means unmitigated.
Epistemologically von Hartmann is a transcendental realist, who ably defends his views and acutely criticizes those of his opponents.
Plumacher, Der Kampf urns Unbewusste (2nd ed., 1890), with a chronological table of the Hartmann literature from 1868 to 1890; A.
- Diagram showing the arrangelength, and this is multiments of Hartmann and Braun's Hotplied and rendered evi- "'ire Ammeter.
A little instrument, supplied by Hartmann and Braun, contains a short length of fine bismuth wire wound into a flat double spiral, half an inch or thereabouts in diameter, and attached to a long ebonite handle.
Mag., 1894, 38, 488) used a little spiral of the pure electrolytic bismuth wire prepared by Hartmann and Braun; this was placed between the pole-pieces of an electromagnet and subjected to fields of various strengths up to nearly 39,000 units.
Hartmann of Nuremberg in 1544, but his observation was not published till much later.
The doctrine of Schopenhauer and von Hartmann is a monism of cosmic will which submerges the individual no less completely than Hegelianism, though in a different manner.
Hartmann in PaulyWissowa's Realencyclopddie, iii.
See article by von Hartmann in Allgem.
He made several valuable acquaintances, among others Lavater and his brother-in-law Hartmann Rahn, to whose daughter, Johanna Maria, he became engaged.
Bahrdt, Geschichte der Reformation der Stadt Hannover (1891); Hartmann, Geschichte von Hannover mit besonderer Riicksichtnahme auf die Entwickelung der Residenzstadt Hannover (1886); Hannover and Umgegend, Entwickelung and Zusteinde seiner Industrie und, Gewerbe (1874); and the Urkundenbuch der Stadt Hannover (1860, fol.).
Vaihinger, Hartmann, Diihring and Lange (1876).
See Hartmann and Jager, Johann Brenz (1840-1842); Bossert, in Hauck's Realencyklop. (1897).
Hence the stress laid on will as the realizing factor, in opposition to thought, a view through which Schelling connects himself with Schopenhauer and Von Hartmann, and on the ground of which he has been recognized by the latter as the reconciler of idealism and realism.
Von Hartmann, Schelling's philos.
In the Hartmann and Braun form of hot-wire voltmeter, the fine wire is fixed between two supports, and the expansion produced when a current is passed through it causes the wire to sag down, the sag being multiplied by a gear and made to move an indicating needle over a scale.
Schelling and Hegel thought it was infinite reason; Schopenhauer, unconscious will; Hartmann, unconscious intelligence and will; Lotze, the activity or life of the divine spirit; Fechner, followed by Paulsen, a world of spiritual actualities comprised in the one spiritual actuality, God, in whom we live and move and have our being.
Von Hartmann, who (Die Philosophie des Unbewussten, 1869, 1st ed.), advanced the view that the world as noumenal is both unconscious intelligence and unconscious will, thus founding a panpneumatism which forms a sort of reconciliation of the panlogism of Hegel and the panthelism of Schopenhauer.
Hartmann has an affinity with all these predecessors, and with Spinoza, with whom he agrees that there is but one substance unaltered by the plurality of individuals which are only its modifications.
The truth of Nature is force; the truth of will is rational desire; the truth of life is neither the optimism of Leibnitz and Hegel, nor the pessimism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but the moderatism of Aristotle.
Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle; Telesio, Bruno and Campanella; Leibnitz; the idealists, Schopenhauer and Hartmann, Fechner and Paulsen; and the materialist, Haeckel - all have agreed in according some sort of appetition to Nature.
The three most vital idealisms of this kind at the moment are the panpneumatism of Hartmann, combining Hegel with Schopenhauer; the panteleologism of Lotze, reviving Leibnitz; and the panpsychism of Paulsen, continuing Fechner, but with the addition of an epistemology combining Kant with Schopenhauer.
Though no noumenalist, in many details he is with noumenalists; with Fechner in psychophysics, in psychophysical parallelism, in the independence of the physical and the psychical chains of causality, in reducing physical and psychical to a difference of aspects, in substituting impulse for accident in organic evolution, and in wishing to recognize a gradation of individual spiritual beings; with Schopenhauer and Hartmann in voluntarism; and even with Schelling and Hegel in their endeavour, albeit on an artificial method, to bring experience under notions, and to unite subject and object in one concrete reality.
It is not necessary for him to follow Schopenhauer, Hartmann and Fechner in endowing the material universe with will or any other mental operation, because his phenomenalism already reduces inorganic nature to mere objects of experiencing subjects.
He does not accept the universal voluntarism of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, but believes in individual wills, and a gradation of wills, in the organic world.
On the whole, his voluntarism, though like that of Schopenhauer and Hartmann, is not the same; not Schopenhauer's, because the ideating will of Wundt's philosophy is not a universal irrational will; and not Hartmann's, because, although ideating will, according to Wundt's phenomenalism, is supposed to extend through the world of organisms, the whole inorganic world remains a mere object of unitary experience.
Hartmann in the Monumenta Germaniae historica (Berlin, 1887-1899), and this splendid edition has superseded all others.
Hartmann, Naturgeschichtliche Skizze der Nillander (Berlin, 1866); Captain G.
Hartmann, The Arabic Press of Egypt (London, 1899).
Hartmann, set the dramas of Ewald and others, and thus the Danish school of music originated.
Without being so forward as the rival city of Augsburg to embrace the architectural fashions of the Italian renaissance - continuing, indeed, to be profoundly imbued with the old and homely German burgher spirit, and to wear, in a degree which time has not very much impaired even yet, the quaintness of the old German civic aspect - she had imported before the close of the 15th century a fair share of the new learning of Italy, and numbered among her citizens distinguished humanists like Hartmann Schedel, Sebald Schreier, Willibald Pirkheimer and Conrad Celtes.
Hartmann, Zeitgeschichte von Fulda (Fulda, 1895); J.
Von Hartmann, Religionsphilosophie I.
Von Hartmann, Das Relig.
Hartmann (Leipzig, 1807); Hilblis Konig und Derwisch, by Ethe, in Morgenland.