Harrows, drawn by four horses, and operated by a single man.
The harrows and drills are worked in "gangs" as the Seeding' ploughs were.
Scare off the birds, harrow up the weeds, cut down all that shades the crop. Ploughs, waggons, threshing-sledges, harrows, baskets, hurdles, winnowing-fans are the farmer's implements.
Harrows and cultivators are used where there are few weeds, and the mulching process is the one desired.
Unfortunately very few of these harrows have come down to us unplundered, and we cannot find one complete example and take it as a type.
A loose layer of earth spread over the surface of the soil acts in the same way, and a similarly effective mulch may be prepared by hoeing the soil, or stirring it to a depth of one or two inches with harrows or other implements.
To prevent this various implements, such as disk harrows and specially constructed rollers, may be used to consolidate the upper stirred portion of the soil and place it in close capillary relationship with the lower unmoved layer.
The ground is then left unworked and open to the crumbling influence of frost till towards the end of winter, when it is stirred with the cultivator followed by the harrows, or in some cases ploughed with a shallow furrow.
The earlier period is characterized by the practice of inhumation in harrows made of clays, stones or sand, according to the district.
The dead are either buried in harrows or cremated, the latter especially in north and east Germany.
The method once exclusively used consists in mixing the raw materials with a large quantity of water in a wash mill, a machine having radial horizontal arms driven from a central vertical spindle and carrying harrows which stir up and intermix any soft material placed in the pit in which the apparatus revolves.
In the same way the villagers had to go through the work of harrowing with their harrows, and of removing the harvest in their vans and carts.
Our earliest information about the land and its people is derived from geological, ethnological and archaeological studies, from the remains in British harrows and caves, Roman roads, walls and villas, coins, place-names and inscriptions.