Early in September both Mangasb~ and Menelek showed signs of activity, and on the 20th of Sq tember Makonnen, ras of Harrar, who up till then had beei regarded as a friend and quasi-ally by Italy, expelled all Italian from his territory and marched with 30,000 men to join tb negus.
For a moment Baratieri thought of retreat, especially as the hope of creating a diversion from Zaila towards Harrar had failed in consequence of the British refusal to permit the landing of an Italian force without the consent of France.
There is, however, a well defined watershed extending from the hills east of Stefanie to the Harrar range.
Inland the limits of Somaliland correspond roughly with the Shoan and Harrar Hills, and the Galla district south of Shoa and east of Lake Rudolf.
The whole region is characterized by a remarkable degree of physical uniformity, and may be broadly described as a vast plateau of an average elevation of 3000 ft., bounded westwards by the Ethiopian and Galla highlands and northwards by an inner and an outer coast range, skirting the south side of the Gulf of Aden in its entire length from the Harrar uplands to Cape Guardafui.
Between the Harrar plateau and Cape Guardafui the coast ranges maintain a mean altitude of from 4000 to 5000 ft., and fall generally in steep escarpments down to the narrow strip of sandy lowlands skirting the Gulf of Aden.
Little Harrar), 60 m.
Trade is largely with Harrar and the Ogaden country - both Abyssinian possessions.
In the 16th century the capital of the state (in which Arab influence was a decreasing factor) was transferred to Harrar (q.v.).
In1874-1875the ambition of Ismail Pasha, khedive of Egypt, who claimed jurisdiction over the whole coast as far as Cape Guardafui, led him to occupy the ports of Tajura, Berbera and Bulhar as well as Harrar in the hinterland.
(The proposal to build a railway from Zaila or Berbera to Harrar, which would have competed with the French line from Jibuti for the trade of southern Abyssinia, had been vetoed on grounds of general policy.) Before the withdrawal arrangements - more or less ineffective - were made for arming and organizing the tribes in the protectorate in their own defence.
By the Harrar province of Abyssinia.
But the value of the protectorate depends upon the carrying trade with Harrar and the supplying of victuals and coals to French warships.
In 1897 the building of a railway from Jibuti towards Harrar was begun.
By Christmas 1902 the railway, called the Imperial Ethiopian railway, was completed to Dire Dawa (or Adis Harrar), 30 m.
Short of Harrar, and 188 by rail from Jibuti, of which but 64 m.
The transference of the seat of government to Jibuti in May 1896 and the building of the railway to Harrar gave the protectorate a stability which it had previously lacked.
Others attribute it to religious fanaticism, or to the result of some barbaric invasion, such as Axum may have repeatedly endured before it was sacked by Mahommed Gran, sultan of Harrar, about 1535.
HARRAR (or Harar), a city of N.E.
Harrar is built on the slopes of a hill at an elevation of over 5000 ft.
Harrar is a city of considerable commercial importance, through it passing all the merchandise of southern Abyssinia, Kaffa and Galla land.
Harrar is believed to owe its foundation to Arab immigrants from the Yemen in the 7th century of the Christian era.
In 1521 the then sultan Abubekr transferred the seat of government to Harrar, probably regarding Zaila as too exposed to the attacks of the Turkish and Portuguese navies then contending for the mastery of the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.
From the beginning of the 17th century Adel suffered greatly from the ravages of pagan Galla tribes, and Harrar sank to the position of an amirate of little importance.
In 1875 Harrar was occupied by an Egyptian force under Raouf Pasha, by whose orders the amir was strangled.
The Egyptian garrison and many Egyptian civilians, in all 6500 persons, left Harrar between November 1884 and the 25th of April 1885, when a son of the ruler who had been deposed by Egypt was installed as amir, the arrangement being carried out under the superintendence of British officers.
The new amir held power until January 1887, in which month Harrar was conquered by Menelek II., king of Shoa (afterwards emperor of Abyssinia).
The governorship of Harrar was by Menelek entrusted to Ras Makonnen, who held the post until his death in 1906.
Besides the native population there are in Harrar colonies of Abyssinians, Somalis and Gallas.
Of Harrar, and about 450 m.
The town is in telegraphic communication with Massawa, Harrar and Jibuti.
In the same year Darfur and Harrar were annexed, and in 1877 Gordon became governor-general of the Sudan, where, with the valuable assistance of Gessi Pasha, he labored to destroy the slave trade and to establish just government.
Trade is confined to coaling passing ships and to importing goods for and exporting goods from southern Abyssinia via Harrar, there being no local industries.
This Scale, 1:9,000,000 35° second range sends a chain (the Harrar hills) eastward to the Gulf of Aden.
Of Gojam; the Harrar province in the east; Kaffa and Galla land, S.W.
With the exception of Harrar, a city of Arab foundation, there are no large towns in Abyssinia.
Harrar is some 30 m.
From Dire Dawa to Harrar there is well-made carriage road, and from Harrar to Adis Ababa the caravan track is kept in good order, the river Hawash being spanned by an iron bridge.
Telegraph lines connect Adis Ababa and several important towns in northern Abyssinia with Massawa, Harrar and Jibuti.
There is also a telephonic service, the longest line being from Harrar to the capital.
The kat plant, a medicinal herb which has a tonic quality, is largely grown in the Harrar province.
"Harrar-Mocha" is of first-class quality.
It is grown in the highlands of Harrar, and cultivated with extreme care.
During the 1 Ras of Harrar, which province had been conquered and occupied by Menelek in January 1887.
In the spring and Britain summer of 1901 a fresh expedition from Harrar was undertaken against the mullah, who was laying waste / the Ogaden country.
From Harrar, by the last day of 1902.
Cornwallis Harris, dealing with the Danakil country, Harrar and Shoa; Mansfield Parkyns, Life in Abyssinia; being notes collected during three years' residence and travels (2nd ed., London, 1868); Antoine d'Abbadie, Douze ans dans la HauteEthiopie (Paris, 1868); P. H.
Pp. lxxiv-v (Leiden, 1888-89), which contains lists of the sovereigns of Abyssinia, Shoa and Harrar, from the earliest times, with brief notes.