The two chief seats of his worship were Ur in the S., and Harran considerably to the N., but the cult at an early period spread to other centres, and temples to the moon-god are found in all the large cities of Babylonia and Assyria.
The name of Sin's chief sanctuary at Ur was E-gish-shir-gal, "house of the great light"; that at Harran was known as E-khul-khul, "house of joys."
Here the Belikh (Bilechas) joins the Euphrates, flowing southward through the biblical Aram Naharaim from Urfa (Edessa) and Harran (Carrhae); and from this point to el-IKaim four days' below Deir, the course of the river is south-easterly.
Abraham, it was believed, came from Harran (Carrhae), primarily from Babylonia, and Jacob re-enters from Gilead in the north-east with his Aramaean wives and concubines and their families (Benjamin excepted).
Again, in 1104, the Normans, while attempting to capture Harran, were badly defeated on the river Balikh, near Rakka; and this defeat may be said to have been fatal to the chance of a great Norman principality.'
But each of the three sections of their army was routed in turn in Asia Minor by the princes of Sivas, Aleppo and Harran, in the middle of I ror; and only a few escaped to report the crushing disaster.
He created for himself a great and united principality, comprising not only Mosul, but also Aleppo,3 Harran, Nisibin and other districts; and in 1130, Alice, the widow of Bohemund II., sought his alliance in order to maintain herself in power at Antioch.
Tobit ben Korra (836-901), born at Harran in Mesopotamia, an accomplished linguist, mathematician and astronomer, rendered conspicuous service by his translations of various Greek authors.
So far we have spoken only of the Christian use of Syriac. Of the pagan Syriac literature which issued mainly from Harran, a city about one day's journey south of Edessa, not a single example appears to have survived.
From Christian writers we learn that Harran continued to be a seat of pagan worship and culture down to and even later than the Mahommedan era.
Anyhow, it is much to be regretted that no Syriac writing from Harran has survived.3 Syriac literature continued in life from the 3rd to the 14th century A.D., but after the Arab conquest it became an increasingly artificial product, for Arabic gradually killed the vernacular use of Syriac.
In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the particular god he addressed (de Goeje, Oriental Congress, Leiden, 1 Herod.
This is chiefly derived from a chronological tablet containing the annals of Nabonidus, which is supplemented by an inscription of Nabonidus, in which he recounts his restoration of the temple of the Moon-god at Harran, as well as by a proclamation of Cyrus issued shortly after his formal recognition as king of Babylonia.
But in heading an attack on Harran, in 1104, he was severely defeated at Balich, near Rakka on the Euphrates.
Happily for Kaikobad, the princes mistrusted the power of the Egyptian, and it proved a difficult task to penetrate through the mountainous, well-fortified accesses to the interior of Asia Minor, so that the advantage rested with Kaikobad, who took Kharput, and for some time even held Harran, Ar-Roha and Rakka (1232).
The plain extending from Urfa to a dozen miles below Harran has a rich red-brown humus derived from the Nimrud Dagh east of Edessa.
Id), on the Euphrates; Jeziret ibn `Omar, Mosul (q.v.), Tekrit, on the Tigris; Edessa (q.v.), Harran (q.v.), on confluents of the Belikh; Veranshehr (Tela), Ras al-`Ain (Rhesaena), Mardin (half-way up the mountain wall), and Nasibin (Assyr.
Von Oppenheim counted in the district west of Edessa and Harran, in a stretch of two days' march, 300 flourishing villages.
Of Eski-Harran, a little nearer to it than to Hmeira, which is west of Eski-Harran, an hour and a half north-east of the ruins of Harran.
Harran was clearly closely associated with Asshur in the rights and institutions that were the subject of so much party struggle in the new Assyrian empire that began with Tiglath-pileser IV.
Before long, however, the overthrow of Astyages by Cyrus cleared Mesopotamia, and Nabonidus (Nabu-naid) was able, drawing on the resources of the whole of Syria for the purpose, to restore the famous temple of Sin at Harran, where a few years later he erected in memory of his mother, who seems to have been a priestess there, the stele published in 1907 by Pognon.
(532) was not long kept, and Roman Mesopotamia, except the pagan Harran, suffered severely (540), Edessa undergoing a trying siege (544) The fifty years' peace also (562) was short lived; the Romans again failed in an attempt to recover Nisibis (573), whilst Chosroes' siege of Dara was successful.
With the accession of Phocas (602) began the great war which shook the two kingdoms. The loss of Edessa, where Narses revolted, was temporary; but the Roman fortress of Dara fell after nine months' siege (c. 605); Harran, Ras al-`Ain and Edessa followed in 607, many of the Christian inhabitants being transported to the Far East, and Chosroes carried the victorious arms of Persia far into the Roman Empire.
The cruelties that accompanied the overthrow of the Omayyad dynasty excited a revolt, which spread to Mesopotamia, and Harran had to undergo a siege by one of Merwan's generals.
The Hamdanids were followed by the `Ogaylids, who had their seats at various places, such as Mosul, Nasibin, Rakka, Harran, between 996 and 1096.
The son of a slave of the third Seljuk sultan, Zangi, governor of `Irak, made himself gradually (Mosul, Sinjar, Jezira, Harran) master of Mesopotamia (1128), capturing Edessa in 1144.
To the same period belong other Atabeg dynasties; Begtiginids at Harran, Tekrit, &c.; Ortokids at Edessa, 'Ana, &c., with Mardin as their headquarters.
The leading men of Harran emigrated into Syria, the rest were carried into slavery, and the ancient town was laid in ruins.
Occasionally we know what the name was; the Baal of Tyre was Melqarth (Melkarth), which again means merely " king of the city "; similarly among the Aramaeans the Ba'al of Harran was the moon-god Sin.
The old cults naturally went on, and at Carrhae (Harran) even survived the establishment of Christianity.
The countries north and east of the Tigris and the northern part of Mesopotamia with the city of Harran (Carrhae) became subject to the Medes.
Composed for the temples of Babylonia were transferred to Assur,, Calah, Harran, Arbela and Nineveh in the north; and the myths and legends also wandered to Assyria, where, to be sure,.
He did not, however, wish to reside in Damascus, but transplanted the seat of government to his own town, Harran in Mesopotamia.
Many Omayyad princes considered Merwan as an upstart, his mother being a slave-girl; the Damascenes were angry because he had chosen Harran for his residence; the Kalbites felt themselves slighted, as the Qaisites predominated.
Merwan retreated to Harran, thence to Damascus, and finally to Egypt, where he fell in a last struggle towards the end of 132 (August 750).
When the news of the death of Abu`1-Abbas reached Abdallah, who at the head of a numerous army was on the point of renewing the Byzantine war, he came to Harran, furious at his exclusion, and proclaimed himself caliph.
Syria and the south he abandoned to Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadrezzar; while, on the other hand, Assyria proper, east of the Tigris, the north of Mesopotamia with the town of Harran (Carrlwe) and the mountains of Armenia were annexed by the Medes.
At first Nabonidus of Babylon hailec the fall of the Medes with delight and utilized the opportunit) by occupying Harran (Carrhae).
" Giaber") makes him a native of Harran in Mesopotamia and a Sabaean.
A centre of his cult in Assyria was in Harran, where, because of the predominating character of the moon-cult, he is viewed as the son of the moongod Sin.
(c. too B.C.) the name seems to have been " District of (not Edessa, but) Harran " (Annals, vi.
Most probably its people belonged to the domain of the then more famous Harran-Carrhae, between which and Samosata (on the Euphrates) Urhai lies midway (some 25-30 m.
At such times, therefore, it included such towns as Harran (Carrhae), Nisibis, Sarug, Zeugma-Birejik, Resaena, Singara, Tigranocerta, Samosata, Melitene.