Since the revival of learning books on the fathers have been numerous; among the more recent and most accessible of these we may mention Smith and Wace's Dictionary of Christian Biography, Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopcidie, Bardenhewer's Patrologie and Geschichte der altkirchlichen Litteratur, Harnack's Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur bei Eusebius and Ehrard's Die altchristliche Litteratur and ihre Erforschung.
There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
A full list of the later bibliography will be found in Harnack's Dogmengeschichte and Chronologie.
Harnack's view is that the creed contains both too much and too little to be a satisfactory test for candidates for ordination, and he would prefer a briefer symbol which could be rigorously exacted from all (cf.
Harnack's History of Dogma; Haureau's Histoire de la philosophie scolastique, 225-238; Hermann Reuter, Geschichte der religiosen Aufkldrung des Mittelalters, vol.
Harnack's History of Dogma is very full (see especially vols.
Harnack's History of Dogma, iii.
Its introduction and six chapters present with rare lucidity the earliest conceptions of the Kingdom of Heaven, the Son of God, the Church, Christian dogma and Catholic worship; and together form a severely critico-historical yet strongly Catholic answer to Harnack's still largely pietistic Wesen des Christentums. It develops throughout the principles that "what is essential in Jesus' Gospel is what occupies the first and largest place in His authentic teaching, the ideas for which He fought and died, and not only that idea which we may consider to be still a living force to-day"; that "it is supremely arbitrary to decree that Christianity must be essentially what the Gospel did not borrow from Judaism, as though what the Gospel owes to Judaism were necessarily of secondary worth"; that "whether we trust or distrust tradition, we know Christ only by means of, athwart and within the Christian tradition"; that "the essence of Christianity resides in the fulness and totality of its life"; and that "the adaptation of the Gospel to the changing conditions of humanity is to-day a more pressing need than ever."
Loisy's developmental defence of Catholicism; Professor Harnack's review of L'Evangile et l'Eglise in the Theol.
An ancient church order which belongs to the latter part of the 2nd century (see Harnack's Sources of Apostolic Canons, Engl.
Harnack's edition of the Didache (1884), his Sources of the Apostolic Canons (Eng.
Harnack's treatment in his History of Dogma (vol.
This is Harnack's date for the nucleus of Vis.
For the wide literature of the subject, see the two former editions, also Harnack's Chronologie der altchr.
The distinction between heretics and schismatics was preserved because it prevented a public denial of the old principles, because it was advisable on political grounds to treat certain schismatic communities with indulgence, and because it was always possible in case of need to prove heresy against the schismatics."(Harnack's History of Dogma, ii.
On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
He criticizes Harnack's theory that there existed in the East, that is, in Asia Minor, or in Asia Minor and Syria as far back as the beginning of the 2nd century, a Christological instruction (uiOmua) organically related to the second article of the Roman Creed, and formulas which taught that the " One God " was " Creator of heaven and earth," and referred to the holy prophetic spirit, and lasted on till they influenced the course of creed-development in the 4th century.
But, as Gwatkin 13 has pointed out, Harnack's arguments are by no means decisive.
His influence was that of saintliness rather than that of intellect."(b) A discussion of Harnack's second line of argument is impossible here.
Harnack's edition in Texte u.
Other references to the literature may be found by consulting Harnack's Altchristl.
This belief may be called what Loofs has called Harnack's definition of dogma - individuell berechtigt, and perhaps nur individual.
- The most notable thing about the life of 1 Upon the spread of the Church during the early centuries see especially Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christenthums in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten.
Harnack's Vortrag and W.
5), 1899; Harnack's " Eine Schrift Novatians," in Texte and Untersuchungen, xiii.
Ramsay's various works, and in Harnack's Chronologie der altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius, i.
Ramsay: Pauline and other Studies (1907), p. 76, Hoennicke's Das Judenchristentum (1908), p. 156 seq., and Harnack's Mission and Expansion of Christianity, ii.
Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Harnack's second argument depends for its validity upon certain conclusions with regard to the date of James and I Peter, which are not universally accepted.
See Hatch, Organization of the Early Christian Churches (2nd ed., 1882), and Harnack's "excursus" in the German edition of this Tertull.
But now the view of the critico-historical school of Protestant thought, of which Dr Adolf Harnack is so representative a spokesman, is that the preservation of spiritual religion in Catholic Christianity, both Eastern and Western, has been mainly, if not wholly, due to monasticism (see Harnack's early tractate Das Monchtum, translated under the title Monasticism, by E.
For further information and discussion see especially Harnack's Chronologie, and Bishop Chase's article in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible.
The second part pursues the history This view has received Harnack's support, op. cit.
Harnack's point is that "dogmatic theology" ought to be used in a sense corresponding to what he regards as the true meaning of "dogma" - Christian belief in its main traditional outlines.
(See Preuschen's list in Harnack's Alt-christliche Litteraturgeschichte, i.
Among the many modern accounts in church histories, histories of Christian literature, encyclopaedias, &c., may be mentioned a monograph by Stein, Eusebius Bischof von Caesarea (Wiirzburg, 1859), meagre but useful as far as it goes; the magnificent article by Lightfoot in the Dictionary of Christian Biography; the account by McGiffert in his translation of the Church History; Erwin Preuschen's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklop. (3rd ed., 1898); the treatment of the Chronology of Eusebius writings in Harnack's Alt - christliche Litteraturgeschichte, ii.