After studying at the Joachimsthal Gymnasium, Berlin, and at the universities of Halle and GÃ¶ttingen, Raumer began to practise law, and rose in the civil service under Hardenberg, the chancellor.
Frederick's youthful, innocent attachment to the daughter of his former tutor, Anna Hardenberg, indisposed him towards matrimony at the beginning of his reign (1558).
At intervals from 1793 to 1801 Lang was closely connected with the Prussian statesman Hardenberg, who employed him as his private secretary and archivist, and in 1 797 he was present with Hardenberg at the congress of Rastadt as secretary to the legation.
Prince von Hardenberg, who by no means shared all the views of his master but was incapacitated by his growing infirmities, was first Prussian plenipotentiary, and assisting him was Baron von Humboldt.
VoN) and the Memoirs of Hardenberg and Czartoryski are very useful.
When Stein was dismissed at the instance of Napoleon, Hardenberg succeeded him as chancellor (June 1810).
The extreme sensitiveness of his temperament, however, disqualified him for politics; he proved impracticable in his relations with Hardenberg and other ministers, and in 18ro retired for a time from public life, accepting the more congenial appointment of royal historiographer and professor at the university of Berlin.
His relations with Madame de Stael became more and more difficult, and in 1808 he secretly married Charlotte von Hardenberg, whom he had known at Brunswick, and whose divorce from her second husband, General Dutertre, he had secured.
In 1811, while residing with his wife's relations at Hardenberg, near GÃ¶ttingen, he was brought into contact with German mysticism, which considerably modified his earlier sceptical views on religion.
In October 1814, when his pupil came of age, Ancillon was included by Prince Hardenberg in the ministry, as privy councillor of legation in the department of foreign affairs, with a view to utilizing his supposed gifts as a philosophical historian in the preparation of the projected Prussian constitution.
In 1813 King Frederick William, after an agony of hesitation, was forced by I War of the patriotic initiative of General Yorck, who concluded, L,ibera~ with the Russians the convention of Tauroggen on his own responsibility, and by the pressure of public opinion supported by Queen Louise and by Hardenberg, to enter into an alliance with Russia.
In October, after a preliminary meeting between Metternich and Hardenberg, in the course of which the latter signed a convention pledging Prussia to Austrias system, a meeting of German ministers was held at Carlsbad, the discussion of which issued in the famous Carlsbad Decrees (October 17, 1819).
The reforms of Stein and Hardenberg in Prussia, of the French and of their clients in South Germany, opened the way for a gradual redemption of the peasantry.