HARBURG, a seaport town of Germany, in the Prussian province of Hanover, on the left bank of the southern arm of the Elbe, 6 m.
It possesses a Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, a palace, which from 1524 to 1642 was the residence of the Harburg line of the house of Brunswick, a high-grade modern school, a commercial school and a theatre.
Harburg belonged originally to the bishopric of Bremen, and received municipal rights in 1297.
See Ludewig, Geschichte des Schlosses and der Stadt Harburg (Harburg, 1845); and Hoffmeyer, Harburg and die ndchste Urngegend (1885).
An excellent service of electric trams interconnect the towns of Hamburg, Altona and the adjacent suburbs, and steamboats provide communication on the Elbe with the riparian towns and villages; and so with Blankenese and Harburg, with Stade, Gliickstadt and Cuxhaven.
At Pirna the Elbe leaves behind it the stress and turmoil of the Saxon Switzerland, rolls through Dresden, with its noble river terraces, and finally, beyond Meissen, enters on its long journey across the North German plain, touching Torgau, Wittenberg, Magdeburg, Wittenberge, Hamburg, Harburg and Altona on the way, and gathering into itself the waters of the Mulde and Saale from the left, and those of the Schwarze Elster, Havel and Elde from the right.
Eight miles above Hamburg the stream divides into the Norder (or Hamburg) Elbe and the Slider (or Harburg) Elbe, which are linked together by several cross-channels, and embrace in their arms the large island of Wilhelmsburg and some smaller ones.
At both Hamburg and Harburg, again, there are handsome railway bridges, the one (1868-1873 and 1894) crossing the northern Elbe, and the other (1900) the southern Elbe; and the former arm is also crossed by a fine triple-arched bridge (1888) for vehicular traffic.
The chief towns - containing more than 10,000 inhabitants - are Hanover, Linden, Osnabruck, Hildesheim, Geestemunde, Wilhelmshaven, Harburg, Luneburg, Celle, GÃ¶ttingen and Emden.
The iron works are very important: smelting is carried on in the Harz and near Osnabruck; there are extensive foundries and machine factories at Hanover, Linden, Osnabruck, Hameln, Geestemunde, Harburg, Osterode, &c., and manufactories of arms at Herzberg, and of cutlery in the towns of the Harz and in the Sollinger Forest.
Shipbuilding is an important industry, especially at Wilhelmshaven, Papenburg, Leer, Stade and Harburg; and at Munden river-barges are built.
THEODOR NOLDEKE (1836-), German Semitic scholar, was born at Harburg on the 2nd of March 1836, and studied at GÃ¶ttingen, Vienna, Leiden and Berlin.
It carries on a number of small manufactures and has some shipping trade, chiefly with Hamburg, but the rise of Harburg has deposed it from its former position as the chief port of Hanover.